Therapeutic potential of the anti-diabetic agent metformin in targeting the skin cancer stem cell diaspora

Authors

  • Anand Reddi,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA
    2. University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA
    • Correspondence: Anand Reddi, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA,

      e-mail: anand.reddi@gmail.com

    Search for more papers by this author
  • Matthew A. Powers,

    1. University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Robert P. Dellavalle

    1. Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA
    2. Department of Dermatology, Denver Veterans Administration Hospital, Denver, CO, USA
    3. Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Type II diabetes is associated with increased prevalence of cancer including both melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Emerging evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that diabetic patients on metformin have a lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality in a broad range of neoplasms. In both melanoma and SCC, populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to tumor initiation and metastasis. We propose that metformin constitutes a new class of targeted therapy that acts on the skin CSC diaspora. We posit that metformin selectively and simultaneously targets CSCs of the primary tumor as well as in metastatic niches thereby disrupting the dynamic dispersal of circulating CSCs between the primary tumor and metastatic site. This hypothesis suggests a new concept in dermato-oncology that treatment of type II diabetes and prevention of skin cancer are two sides of the same coin.

Ancillary