• Open Access

Evolutionary impact assessment: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management

Authors

  • Ane T Laugen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden
    2. IFREMER, Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, Port-en-Bessin, France
    • Correspondence: Ane T Laugen, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden

      Tel.: +46 18 672357

      Fax: +46 18 672890

      E-mail: ane.laugen@slu.se

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  • Georg H Engelhard,

    1. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Lowestoft, UK
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  • Rebecca Whitlock,

    1. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
    2. Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA, California, USA
    3. Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Turku, Finland
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  • Robert Arlinghaus,

    1. Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
    2. Department for Crop and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany
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  • Dorothy J Dankel,

    1. Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
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  • Erin S Dunlop,

    1. Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
    2. EvoFish Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    3. Aquatic Research and Development Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON, Canada, K9J 8M5
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  • Anne M Eikeset,

    1. Department of Biology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
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  • Katja Enberg,

    1. Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
    2. EvoFish Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
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  • Christian Jørgensen,

    1. EvoFish Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    2. Computational Ecology Unit, Uni Research, Bergen, Norway
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  • Shuichi Matsumura,

    1. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
    2. Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
    3. Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan
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  • Sébastien Nusslé,

    1. Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    2. Conservation Biology, Bern University, Bern, Switzerland
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  • Davnah Urbach,

    1. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
    2. Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, The Class of 1978 Life Sciences Center, Hanover, NH, USA
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  • Loїc Baulier,

    1. Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
    2. EvoFish Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    3. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Center, Agrocampus Ouest Centre de Rennes, Rennes Cedex, France
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  • David S Boukal,

    1. Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
    2. EvoFish Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    3. Department of Ecosystems Biology, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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  • Bruno Ernande,

    1. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
    2. IFREMER, Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
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  • Fiona D Johnston,

    1. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
    2. Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
    3. Department for Crop and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany
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  • Fabian Mollet,

    1. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
    2. Wageningen IMARES, AB IJmuiden, The Netherlands
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  • Heidi Pardoe,

    1. Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, MARICE, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
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  • Nina O Therkildsen,

    1. Section for Population Ecology and Genetics, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Silkeborg, Denmark
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  • Silva Uusi-Heikkilä,

    1. Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
    2. Division of Genetics and Physiology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
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  • Anssi Vainikka,

    1. Department of Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    2. Swedish Board of Fisheries, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden
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  • Mikko Heino,

    1. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
    2. Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
    3. EvoFish Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
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  • Adriaan D Rijnsdorp,

    1. Wageningen IMARES, AB IJmuiden, The Netherlands
    2. Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands
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  • Ulf Dieckmann

    1. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
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Abstract

Managing fisheries resources to maintain healthy ecosystems is one of the main goals of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). While a number of international treaties call for the implementation of EAF, there are still gaps in the underlying methodology. One aspect that has received substantial scientific attention recently is fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). Increasing evidence indicates that intensive fishing has the potential to exert strong directional selection on life-history traits, behaviour, physiology, and morphology of exploited fish. Of particular concern is that reversing evolutionary responses to fishing can be much more difficult than reversing demographic or phenotypically plastic responses. Furthermore, like climate change, multiple agents cause FIE, with effects accumulating over time. Consequently, FIE may alter the utility derived from fish stocks, which in turn can modify the monetary value living aquatic resources provide to society. Quantifying and predicting the evolutionary effects of fishing is therefore important for both ecological and economic reasons. An important reason this is not happening is the lack of an appropriate assessment framework. We therefore describe the evolutionary impact assessment (EvoIA) as a structured approach for assessing the evolutionary consequences of fishing and evaluating the predicted evolutionary outcomes of alternative management options. EvoIA can contribute to EAF by clarifying how evolution may alter stock properties and ecological relations, support the precautionary approach to fisheries management by addressing a previously overlooked source of uncertainty and risk, and thus contribute to sustainable fisheries.

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