• 1
    Huggins C & Hodges CV (1972) Studies on prostatic cancer. I. The effect of castration, of estrogen and androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. CA Cancer J Clin 22, 232240.
  • 2
    Attard G, Cooper CS & de Bono JS (2009) Steroid hormone receptors in prostate cancer: a hard habit to break? Cancer Cell 16, 458462.
  • 3
    Shang Y, Myers M & Brown M (2002) Formation of the androgen receptor transcription complex. Mol Cell 9, 601610.
  • 4
    Sun Z, Pan J & Balk SP (1997) Androgen receptor-associated protein complex binds upstream of the androgen-responsive elements in the promoters of human prostate-specific antigen and kallikrein 2 genes. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 33183325.
  • 5
    Rokhlin OW, Taghiyev AF, Guseva NV, Glover RA, Chumakov PM, Kravchenko JE & Cohen MB (2005) Androgen regulates apoptosis induced by TNFR family ligands via multiple signaling pathways in LNCaP. Oncogene 24, 67736784.
  • 6
    Lu S, Tsai SY & Tsai MJ (1997) Regulation of androgen-dependent prostatic cancer cell growth: androgen regulation of CDK2, CDK4, and CKI p16 genes. Cancer Res 57, 45114516.
  • 7
    Tomlins SA, Rhodes DR, Perner S, Dhanasekaran SM, Mehra R, Sun XW, Varambally S, Cao X, Tchinda J, Kuefer R et al. (2005) Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer. Science 310, 644648.
  • 8
    Setlur SR, Mertz KD, Hoshida Y, Demichelis F, Lupien M, Perner S, Sboner A, Pawitan Y, Andren O, Johnson LA et al. (2008) Estrogen-dependent signaling in a molecularly distinct subclass of aggressive prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 100, 815825.
  • 9
    Takahashi Y, Perkins SN, Hursting SD & Wang TT (2007) 17beta-Estradiol differentially regulates androgen-responsive genes through estrogen receptor-beta- and extracellular-signal regulated kinase-dependent pathways in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Mol Carcinog 46, 117129.
  • 10
    Bu H, Bormann S, Schafer G, Horninger W, Massoner P, Neeb A, Lakshmanan VK, Maddalo D, Nestl A, Sultmann H et al. (2011) The anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) gene is overexpressed in prostate cancer and may be useful as a urine sediment marker for prostate cancer detection. Prostate 71, 575587.
  • 11
    Vanderlaag KE, Hudak S, Bald L, Fayadat-Dilman L, Sathe M, Grein J & Janatpour MJ (2010) Anterior gradient-2 plays a critical role in breast cancer cell growth and survival by modulating cyclin D1, estrogen receptor-alpha and survivin. Breast Cancer Res 12, R32.
  • 12
    Zhang JS, Gong A, Cheville JC, Smith DI & Young CY (2005) AGR2, an androgen-inducible secretory protein overexpressed in prostate cancer. Genes Chromosom Cancer 43, 249259.
  • 13
    Park SW, Zhen G, Verhaeghe C, Nakagami Y, Nguyenvu LT, Barczak AJ, Killeen N & Erle DJ (2009) The protein disulfide isomerase AGR2 is essential for production of intestinal mucus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106, 69506955.
  • 14
    Zhang Y, Forootan SS, Liu D, Barraclough R, Foster CS, Rudland PS & Ke Y (2007) Increased expression of anterior gradient-2 is significantly associated with poor survival of prostate cancer patients. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 10, 293300.
  • 15
    Hrstka R, Nenutil R, Fourtouna A, Maslon MM, Naughton C, Langdon S, Murray E, Larionov A, Petrakova K, Muller P et al. (2010) The pro-metastatic protein anterior gradient-2 predicts poor prognosis in tamoxifen-treated breast cancers. Oncogene 29, 48384847.
  • 16
    Wilson CL, Sims AH, Howell A, Miller CJ & Clarke RB (2006) Effects of oestrogen on gene expression in epithelium and stroma of normal human breast tissue. Endocr Relat Cancer 13, 617628.
  • 17
    Fletcher GC, Patel S, Tyson K, Adam PJ, Schenker M, Loader JA, Daviet L, Legrain P, Parekh R, Harris AL et al. (2003) hAG-2 and hAG-3, human homologues of genes involved in differentiation, are associated with oestrogen receptor-positive breast tumours and interact with metastasis gene C4.4a and dystroglycan. Br J Cancer 88, 579585.
  • 18
    Brychtova V, Vojtesek B & Hrstka R (2011) Anterior gradient 2: a novel player in tumor cell biology. Cancer Lett 304, 17.
  • 19
    Persson S, Rosenquist M, Knoblach B, Khosravi-Far R, Sommarin M & Michalak M (2005) Diversity of the protein disulfide isomerase family: identification of breast tumor induced Hag2 and Hag3 as novel members of the protein family. Mol Phylogenet Evol 36, 734740.
  • 20
    Adam PJ, Boyd R, Tyson KL, Fletcher GC, Stamps A, Hudson L, Poyser HR, Redpath N, Griffiths M, Steers G et al. (2003) Comprehensive proteomic analysis of breast cancer cell membranes reveals unique proteins with potential roles in clinical cancer. J Biol Chem 278, 64826489.
  • 21
    Gray TA, MacLaine NJ, Michie CO, Bouchalova P, Murray E, Howie J, Hrstka R, Maslon MM, Nenutil R, Vojtesek B et al. (2012) Anterior Gradient-3: a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer that mediates cisplatin resistance in xenograft models. J Immunol Methods 378, 2032.
  • 22
    King ER, Tung CS, Tsang YT, Zu Z, Lok GT, Deavers MT, Malpica A, Wolf JK, Lu KH, Birrer MJ et al. (2011) The anterior gradient homolog 3 (AGR3) gene is associated with differentiation and survival in ovarian cancer. Am J Surg Pathol 35, 904912.
  • 23
    van Bokhoven A, Varella-Garcia M, Korch C, Johannes WU, Smith EE, Miller HL, Nordeen SK, Miller GJ & Lucia MS (2003) Molecular characterization of human prostate carcinoma cell lines. Prostate 57, 205225.
  • 24
    Huynh H, Yang XF & Pollak M (1996) A role for insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 in the antiproliferative action of the antiestrogen ICI 182780. Cell Growth Differ 7, 15011506.
  • 25
    Cai C, He HH, Chen S, Coleman I, Wang H, Fang Z, Nelson PS, Liu XS, Brown M & Balk SP (2011) Androgen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer is directly suppressed by the androgen receptor through recruitment of lysine-specific demethylase 1. Cancer Cell 20, 457471.
  • 26
    Veldscholte J, Berrevoets CA, Brinkmann AO, Grootegoed JA & Mulder E (1992) Anti-androgens and the mutated androgen receptor of LNCaP cells: differential effects on binding affinity, heat-shock protein interaction, and transcription activation. Biochemistry 31, 23932399.
  • 27
    Makkonen H, Kauhanen M, Paakinaho V, Jaaskelainen T & Palvimo JJ (2009) Long-range activation of FKBP51 transcription by the androgen receptor via distal intronic enhancers. Nucleic Acids Res 37, 41354148.
  • 28
    Cartharius K, Frech K, Grote K, Klocke B, Haltmeier M, Klingenhoff A, Frisch M, Bayerlein M & Werner T (2005) MatInspector and beyond: promoter analysis based on transcription factor binding sites. Bioinformatics 21, 29332942.
  • 29
    Farre D, Roset R, Huerta M, Adsuara JE, Rosello L, Alba MM & Messeguer X (2003) Identification of patterns in biological sequences at the ALGGEN server: PROMO and MALGEN. Nucleic Acids Res 31, 36513653.
  • 30
    Heintzman ND, Hon GC, Hawkins RD, Kheradpour P, Stark A, Harp LF, Ye Z, Lee LK, Stuart RK, Ching CW et al. (2009) Histone modifications at human enhancers reflect global cell-type-specific gene expression. Nature 459, 108112.
  • 31
    Visel A, Blow MJ, Li Z, Zhang T, Akiyama JA, Holt A, Plajzer-Frick I, Shoukry M, Wright C, Chen F et al. (2009) ChIP-seq accurately predicts tissue-specific activity of enhancers. Nature 457, 854858.
  • 32
    Wang Q, Carroll JS & Brown M (2005) Spatial and temporal recruitment of androgen receptor and its coactivators involves chromosomal looping and polymerase tracking. Mol Cell 19, 631642.
  • 33
    Kang Z, Janne OA & Palvimo JJ (2004) Coregulator recruitment and histone modifications in transcriptional regulation by the androgen receptor. Mol Endocrinol 18, 26332648.
  • 34
    Rae JM, Johnson MD, Cordero KE, Scheys JO, Larios JM, Gottardis MM, Pienta KJ & Lippman ME (2006) GREB1 is a novel androgen-regulated gene required for prostate cancer growth. Prostate 66, 886894.
  • 35
    Yeh S, Miyamoto H, Shima H & Chang C (1998) From estrogen to androgen receptor: a new pathway for sex hormones in prostate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 55275532.
  • 36
    Nakhla AM, Romas NA & Rosner W (1997) Estradiol activates the prostate androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen secretion through the intermediacy of sex hormone-binding globulin. J Biol Chem 272, 68386841.
  • 37
    Veldscholte J, Voorhorst-Ogink MM, Bolt-de Vries J, van Rooij HC, Trapman J & Mulder E (1990) Unusual specificity of the androgen receptor in the human prostate tumor cell line LNCaP: high affinity for progestagenic and estrogenic steroids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1052, 187194.
  • 38
    Attardi BJ, Burgenson J, Hild SA & Reel JR (2004) Steroid hormonal regulation of growth, prostate specific antigen secretion, and transcription mediated by the mutated androgen receptor in CWR22Rv1 human prostate carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 222, 121132.
  • 39
    Chen CD, Welsbie DS, Tran C, Baek SH, Chen R, Vessella R, Rosenfeld MG & Sawyers CL (2004) Molecular determinants of resistance to antiandrogen therapy. Nat Med 10, 3339.
  • 40
    Waltering KK, Helenius MA, Sahu B, Manni V, Linja MJ, Janne OA & Visakorpi T (2009) Increased expression of androgen receptor sensitizes prostate cancer cells to low levels of androgens. Cancer Res 69, 81418149.
  • 41
    Linja MJ, Savinainen KJ, Saramaki OR, Tammela TL, Vessella RL & Visakorpi T (2001) Amplification and overexpression of androgen receptor gene in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Cancer Res 61, 35503555.
  • 42
    Taylor BS, Schultz N, Hieronymus H, Gopalan A, Xiao Y, Carver BS, Arora VK, Kaushik P, Cerami E, Reva B et al. (2010) Integrative genomic profiling of human prostate cancer. Cancer Cell 18, 1122.
  • 43
    Titus MA, Schell MJ, Lih FB, Tomer KB & Mohler JL (2005) Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone tissue levels in recurrent prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11, 46534657.
  • 44
    Kung HJ & Evans CP (2009) Oncogenic activation of androgen receptor. Urol Oncol 27, 4852.
  • 45
    Velasco AM, Gillis KA, Li Y, Brown EL, Sadler TM, Achilleos M, Greenberger LM, Frost P, Bai W & Zhang Y (2004) Identification and validation of novel androgen-regulated genes in prostate cancer. Endocrinology 145, 39133924.
  • 46
    Wang Q, Li W, Liu XS, Carroll JS, Janne OA, Keeton EK, Chinnaiyan AM, Pienta KJ & Brown M (2007) A hierarchical network of transcription factors governs androgen receptor-dependent prostate cancer growth. Mol Cell 27, 380392.
  • 47
    Koch CM, Andrews RM, Flicek P, Dillon SC, Karaoz U, Clelland GK, Wilcox S, Beare DM, Fowler JC, Couttet P et al. (2007) The landscape of histone modifications across 1% of the human genome in five human cell lines. Genome Res 17, 691707.
  • 48
    Zheng W, Rosenstiel P, Huse K, Sina C, Valentonyte R, Mah N, Zeitlmann L, Grosse J, Ruf N, Nurnberg P et al. (2006) Evaluation of AGR2 and AGR3 as candidate genes for inflammatory bowel disease. Genes Immun 7, 1118.
  • 49
    Chen G, Korfhagen TR, Xu Y, Kitzmiller J, Wert SE, Maeda Y, Gregorieff A, Clevers H & Whitsett JA (2009) SPDEF is required for mouse pulmonary goblet cell differentiation and regulates a network of genes associated with mucus production. J Clin Invest 119, 29142924.
  • 50
    Magee JA, Chang LW, Stormo GD & Milbrandt J (2006) Direct, androgen receptor-mediated regulation of the FKBP5 gene via a distal enhancer element. Endocrinology 147, 590598.
  • 51
    Korenchuk S, Lehr JE, MClean L, Lee YG, Whitney S, Vessella R, Lin DL & Pienta KJ (2001) VCaP, a cell-based model system of human prostate cancer. In vivo 15, 163168.
  • 52
    Lee YG, Korenchuk S, Lehr J, Whitney S, Vessela R & Pienta KJ (2001) Establishment and characterization of a new human prostatic cancer cell line: DuCaP. In vivo 15, 157162.
  • 53
    Langmead B, Trapnell C, Pop M & Salzberg SL (2009) Ultrafast and memory-efficient alignment of short DNA sequences to the human genome. Genome Biol 10, R25.
  • 54
    Zhang Y, Liu T, Meyer CA, Eeckhoute J, Johnson DS, Bernstein BE, Nusbaum C, Myers RM, Brown M, Li W et al. (2008) Model-based analysis of ChIP-Seq (MACS). Genome Biol 9, R137.