• 1
    Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E & Forman D (2011) Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 61, 6990.
  • 2
    Mook S, Van't Veer LJ, Rutgers EJ, Ravdin PM, van de Velde AO, van Leeuwen FE, Visser O & Schmidt MK (2011) Independent prognostic value of screen detection in invasive breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 103, 585597.
  • 3
    McDonnell DP & Norris JD (2002) Connections and regulation of the human estrogen receptor. Science 296, 16421644.
  • 4
    Ali S & Coombes RC (2000) Estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer: occurrence and significance. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 5, 271281.
  • 5
    Fox EM, Bernaciak TM, Wen J, Weaver AM, Shupnik MA & Silva CM (2008) Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, c-Src, and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling play integral roles in estrogen-stimulated proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol 22, 17811796.
  • 6
    Fox EM, Davis RJ & Shupnik MA (2008) ERbeta in breast cancer – onlooker, passive player, or active protector? Steroids 73, 10391051.
  • 7
    Lazennec G, Bresson D, Lucas A, Chauveau C & Vignon F (2001) ER beta inhibits proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. Endocrinology 142, 41204130.
  • 8
    Acconcia F & Kumar R (2006) Signaling regulation of genomic and nongenomic functions of estrogen receptors. Cancer Lett 238, 114.
  • 9
    Nilsson S, Makela S, Treuter E, Tujague M, Thomsen J, Andersson G, Enmark E, Pettersson K, Warner M & Gustafsson JA (2001) Mechanisms of estrogen action. Physiol Rev 81, 15351565.
  • 10
    Shupnik MA (2004) Crosstalk between steroid receptors and the c-Src-receptor tyrosine kinase pathways: implications for cell proliferation. Oncogene 23, 79797989.
  • 11
    Silva CM & Shupnik MA (2007) Integration of steroid and growth factor pathways in breast cancer: focus on signal transducers and activators of transcription and their potential role in resistance. Mol Endocrinol 21, 14991512.
  • 12
    Barletta F, Wong CW, McNally C, Komm BS, Katzenellenbogen B & Cheskis BJ (2004) Characterization of the interactions of estrogen receptor and MNAR in the activation of cSrc. Mol Endocrinol 18, 10961108.
  • 13
    Levin ER (2002) Cellular functions of plasma membrane estrogen receptors. Steroids 67, 471475.
  • 14
    Song RX, Zhang Z, Chen Y, Bao Y & Santen RJ (2007) Estrogen signaling via a linear pathway involving insulin-like growth factor I receptor, matrix metalloproteinases, and epidermal growth factor receptor to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Endocrinology 148, 40914101.
  • 15
    Theocharis ADGC, Hascall V & Karamanos N (2012) Extracellular Matrix: A Functional Scaffold. De Gruyter, Berlin.
  • 16
    Theocharis AD, Skandalis SS, Tzanakakis GN & Karamanos NK (2010) Proteoglycans in health and disease: novel roles for proteoglycans in malignancy and their pharmacological targeting. FEBS J 277, 39043923.
  • 17
    Iozzo RV & Sanderson RD (2011) Proteoglycans in cancer biology, tumour microenvironment and angiogenesis. J Cell Mol Med 15, 10131031.
  • 18
    Sanderson RD (2001) Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in invasion and metastasis. Semin Cell Dev Biol 12, 8998.
  • 19
    Afratis N, Gialeli C, Nikitovic D, Tsegenidis T, Karousou E, Theocharis AD, Pavao MS, Tzanakakis GN & Karamanos NK (2012) Glycosaminoglycans: key players in cancer cell biology and treatment. FEBS J 279, 11771197.
  • 20
    Xian X, Gopal S & Couchman JR (2010) Syndecans as receptors and organizers of the extracellular matrix. Cell Tissue Res 339, 3146.
  • 21
    Yoneda A, Lendorf ME, Couchman JR & Multhaupt HA (2012) Breast and ovarian cancers: a survey and possible roles for the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. J Histochem Cytochem 60, 921.
  • 22
    Mitropoulou TN, Tzanakakis GN, Nikitovic D, Tsatsakis A & Karamanos NK (2002) In vitro effects of genistein on the synthesis and distribution of glycosaminoglycans/proteoglycans by estrogen receptor-positive and -negative human breast cancer epithelial cells. Anticancer Res 22, 28412846.
  • 23
    Mitropoulou TN, Theocharis AD, Nikitovic D, Karamanos NK & Tzanakakis GN (2004) IGF-I affects glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan synthesis in breast cancer cells through tyrosine kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. Biochimie 86, 251259.
  • 24
    Song RX, Chen Y, Zhang Z, Bao Y, Yue W, Wang JP, Fan P & Santen RJ (2010) Estrogen utilization of IGF-1-R and EGF-R to signal in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 118, 219230.
  • 25
    McClelland RA, Barrow D, Madden TA, Dutkowski CM, Pamment J, Knowlden JM, Gee JM & Nicholson RI (2001) Enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in MCF7 breast cancer cells after long-term culture in the presence of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (Faslodex). Endocrinology 142, 27762788.
  • 26
    Kousidou O, Berdiaki A, Kletsas D, Zafiropoulos A, Theocharis AD, Tzanakakis GN & Karamanos NK (2008) Estradiol-estrogen receptor: a key interplay of the expression of syndecan-2 and metalloproteinase-9 in breast cancer cells. Mol Oncol 2, 223232.
  • 27
    Bartucci M, Morelli C, Mauro L, Ando S & Surmacz E (2001) Differential insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling and function in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 61, 67476754.
  • 28
    Price JT, Tiganis T, Agarwal A, Djakiew D & Thompson EW (1999) Epidermal growth factor promotes MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration through a phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase and phospholipase C-dependent mechanism. Cancer Res 59, 54755478.
  • 29
    Tkachenko E, Rhodes JM & Simons M (2005) Syndecans: new kids on the signaling block. Circ Res 96, 488500.
  • 30
    Longley RL, Woods A, Fleetwood A, Cowling GJ, Gallagher JT & Couchman JR (1999) Control of morphology, cytoskeleton and migration by syndecan-4. J Cell Sci 112, 34213431.
  • 31
    Chalkiadaki G, Nikitovic D, Berdiaki A, Sifaki M, Krasagakis K, Katonis P, Karamanos NK & Tzanakakis GN (2009) Fibroblast growth factor-2 modulates melanoma adhesion and migration through a syndecan-4-dependent mechanism. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41, 13231331.
  • 32
    Liu W, Litwack ED, Stanley MJ, Langford JK, Lander AD & Sanderson RD (1998) Heparan sulfate proteoglycans as adhesive and anti-invasive molecules. Syndecans and glypican have distinct functions. J Biol Chem 273, 2282522832.
  • 33
    Matsuda K, Maruyama H, Guo F, Kleeff J, Itakura J, Matsumoto Y, Lander AD & Korc M (2001) Glypican-1 is overexpressed in human breast cancer and modulates the mitogenic effects of multiple heparin-binding growth factors in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 61, 55625569.
  • 34
    Militsopoulou M, Lamari F & Karamanos NK (2003) Capillary electrophoresis: a tool for studying interactions of glycans/proteoglycans with growth factors. J Pharm Biomed Anal 32, 823828.
  • 35
    Lim E, Metzger-Filho O & Winer EP (2012) The natural history of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Oncology 26 (688–694), 696.
  • 36
    Sui M, Zhang H & Fan W (2011) The role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in chemoresistance. Curr Med Chem 18, 46744683.
  • 37
    Cortez V, Mann M, Brann DW & Vadlamudi RK (2010) Extranuclear signaling by estrogen: role in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Minerva Ginecol 62, 573583.
  • 38
    Massarweh S & Schiff R (2006) Resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer: exploiting estrogen receptor/growth factor signaling crosstalk. Endocr Relat Cancer 13, S1524.
  • 39
    Yu L, Moore AB, Castro L, Gao X, Huynh HL, Klippel M, Flagler ND, Lu Y, Kissling GE & Dixon D (2012) Estrogen regulates MAPK-related genes through genomic and nongenomic interactions between IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase and estrogen receptor-alpha signaling pathways in human uterine leiomyoma cells. J Signal Transduct, doi:10.1155/2012/204236.
  • 40
    Mendoza RA, Enriquez MI, Mejia SM, Moody EE & Thordarson G (2011) Interactions between IGF-I, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and ERbeta in regulating growth/apoptosis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J Endocrinol 208, 19.
  • 41
    Song RX, McPherson RA, Adam L, Bao Y, Shupnik M, Kumar R & Santen RJ (2002) Linkage of rapid estrogen action to MAPK activation by ERalpha-Shc association and Shc pathway activation. Mol Endocrinol 16, 116127.
  • 42
    Yarden RI, Wilson MA & Chrysogelos SA (2001) Estrogen suppression of EGFR expression in breast cancer cells: a possible mechanism to modulate growth. J Cell Biochem 36, 232246.
  • 43
    Santen RJ, Fan P, Zhang Z, Bao Y, Song RX & Yue W (2009) Estrogen signals via an extra-nuclear pathway involving IGF-1R and EGFR in tamoxifen-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells. Steroids 74, 586594.
  • 44
    Tkachenko E, Lutgens E, Stan RV & Simons M (2004) Fibroblast growth factor 2 endocytosis in endothelial cells proceed via syndecan-4-dependent activation of Rac1 and a Cdc42-dependent macropinocytic pathway. J Cell Sci 117, 31893199.
  • 45
    Han I, Park H & Oh ES (2004) New insights into syndecan-2 expression and tumourigenic activity in colon carcinoma cells. J Mol Histol 35, 319326.
  • 46
    Kleeff J, Wildi S, Kumbasar A, Friess H, Lander AD & Korc M (1999) Stable transfection of a glypican-1 antisense construct decreases tumorigenicity in PANC-1 pancreatic carcinoma cells. Pancreas 19, 281288.
  • 47
    Chakravarty D, Nair SS, Santhamma B, Nair BC, Wang L, Bandyopadhyay A, Agyin JK, Brann D, Sun LZ, Yeh IT et al. (2010) Extranuclear functions of ER impact invasive migration and metastasis by breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 70, 40924101.