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The substrate oxidation mechanism of pyranose 2-oxidase and other related enzymes in the glucose–methanol–choline superfamily

Authors

  • Thanyaporn Wongnate,

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Center of Excellence in Protein Structure and Function, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
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  • Pimchai Chaiyen

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Biochemistry and Center of Excellence in Protein Structure and Function, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
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Correspondence

P. Chaiyen, Department of Biochemistry and Center of Excellence in Protein Structure and Function, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand

Fax: +6623547174

Tel: +6622015596

E-mail: pimchai.cha@mahidol.ac.th

Abstract

Enzymes in the glucose–methanol–choline (GMC) oxidoreductase superfamily catalyze the oxidation of an alcohol moiety to the corresponding aldehyde. In this review, the current understanding of the sugar oxidation mechanism in the reaction of pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) is highlighted and compared with that of other enzymes in the GMC family for which structural and mechanistic information is available, including glucose oxidase, choline oxidase, cholesterol oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, aryl-alcohol oxidase, and pyridoxine 4-oxidase. Other enzymes in the family that have been newly discovered or for which less information is available are also discussed. A large primary kinetic isotope effect was observed for the flavin reduction when 2-d-d-glucose was used as a substrate, but no solvent kinetic isotope effect was detected for the flavin reduction step. The reaction of P2O is consistent with a hydride transfer mechanism in which there is stepwise formation of d-glucose alkoxide prior to the hydride transfer. Site-directed mutagenesis of P2O and pH-dependence studies indicated that His548 is a catalytic base that facilitates the deprotonation of C2–OH in d-glucose. This finding agrees with the current mechanistic model for aryl-alcohol oxidase, glucose oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, methanol oxidase, and pyridoxine 4-oxidase, but is different from that of cholesterol oxidase and choline oxidase. Although all of the GMC enzymes share similar structural folding and use the hydride transfer mechanism for flavin reduction, they appear to have subtle differences in the fine-tuned details of how they catalyze substrate oxidation.

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