Poly-ADP-ribosylation functions in diverse signaling pathways, such as Wnt signaling and DNA damage repair, where its role is relatively well characterized. Contrarily, mono-ADP-ribosylation by for example ARTD10/PARP10 is much less understood. Recent developments hint at the involvement of mono-ADP-ribosylation in transcriptional regulation, the unfolded protein response, DNA repair, insulin secretion and immunity. Additionally, macrodomain-containing hydrolases, MacroD1, MacroD2 and C6orf130/TARG1, have been identified that make mono-ADP-ribosylation reversible. Complicating further progress is the lack of tools such as mono-ADP-ribose-specific antibodies. The currently known functions of mono-ADP-ribosylation are summarized here, as well as the available tools such as mass spectrometry to study this modification in vitro and in cells.