Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive sphingolipid involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation and malignant transformation among other functions. S1P acts either directly on intracellular targets or activates G protein-coupled receptors, specifically five S1P receptors (S1PRs). The identified S1PRs differ in cellular and tissue distribution, and each is coupled to specific G proteins, which mediate unique functions. Here, we describe functional characteristics of all five receptors, emphasizing S1PR2, which is critical in the immune, nervous, metabolic, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and renal systems. This review also describes the role of this receptor in tumor growth and metastasis and suggests potential therapeutic avenues that exploit S1PR2.