This paper presents and discusses static (elastoviscoplastic and damage) and high-cycle fatigue characterization of two microstructures of the Ti5553 alloy. The difference between these two microstructures is related to their heat treatment and precisely to the temperature of the final aging. For each microstructure, several tests were carried out to identify their static and fatigue properties and the test results were correlated to the microstructure. A fractographic analysis of the rupture sections was performed in order to investigate the fracture mechanisms of the two microstructures. Finally, the fatigue properties of the two microstructures were compared with those found in results reported in the literature for two other classical titanium alloys used for aeronautical applications.