This study investigated the relationships between students' self-assessments and experts' assessments in a university French pronunciation course for nonnative speakers using a pre-/posttest design. Results indicated that students were relatively accurate when making a global assessment (Time 1) and when judging some specific aspects of their French pronunciation (Time 2), although they tended to overestimate the extent to which their abilities were native-like. Their self-assessments were most accurate when evaluating linguistic components for which they had learned concrete rules (e.g., liaisons). In addition, data revealed that students became more native-like in their pronunciation, particularly with regard to nasal and other new vowel sounds, and a content analysis of students' responses to a free-response self-analysis query at the end of the course indicated that their awareness of their pronunciation difficulties had increased. Taken together, the study found that self-assessment may be a valuable pedagogical tool for helping second language learners to acquire more authentic pronunciation.