This article examines national and regional dependence on fisheries in mainland China. In 2010, the fishing industry in mainland China contributed 1.5% to annual national GDP and represented 9.3% of value added by all primary production sectors. The annual value of fishery exports accounted for about 30% of the national food export value. It provided an average of more than 40 kg yr−1 of animal protein for every Chinese person, contributing greatly to national food security. Moreover, fisheries have created employment for approximately 14.0 million persons, and a source of income and livelihood for 20.8 million people in 5.2 million households. Fisheries are mainly concentrated in the provinces along the coast and those in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Furthermore, the primary fisheries sector is a basic industry in more regions than the secondary and tertiary sectors.