Contribution to national economic growth
The gross output value by fisheries in mainland China approached RMB￥ 1290 billion (US$ 210 billion) in 2010; of this, 52, 24 and 24% were, respectively, contributed by the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. The value added by fisheries was about RMB￥ 590 (US$ 96) billion, accounting for 1.5% of the national GDP, of this, 64, 19 and 17% were added by the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors, respectively (MOAPRC 2011a). The value added accounted for nearly half of the turnover, indicating that fisheries can be considered relatively high value adding industries.
The gross output value and value added by primary fisheries were RMB￥ 673 (US$ 110) billion and RMB￥ 379 (US$ 61) billion, respectively, in mainland China in 2010 (Table 1). They accounted for approximately 9.3% of that by all primary production sectors including farming, forestry and animal husbandry (CSY), the share was about 3 times higher than that of 1980s, and 1.2 times higher than that of 1990s (Fig. 2). In primary fisheries, the output value and the value added by capture and aquaculture accounted for about 23 and 77%, respectively, in 2010.
Figure 2. Share of annual primary fishery gross output value relative to that of all primary sectors in mainland China during 1980–2010.
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In 2010, the gross output value and value added of the secondary sector of fisheries, including fish processing, fishery machinery manufacturing, fish feed and drugs, and fishery infrastructure, approached, respectively, RMB￥ 309 (US$ 50) billion and RMB￥ 112 (US$ 18) billion in mainland China while corresponding values of the tertiary sectors, including wholesaling, recreation and technical training, were RMB￥ 309 (US$ 50) billion and RMB￥ 99 (US$ 16) billion, respectively (Table 1).
Food supplier and nutrition improver
In 2010, the total output by weight by fisheries in mainland China reached 53.73 million tonnes, of which, 38.29 million tonnes came from aquaculture and 15.44 million tonnes from capture (MOAPRC 2011a), accounting for 71 and 29%, respectively. National per capita fish supply amounted to 40.1 kg yr−1, two times higher than that of the world average in the same year (FAO 2012).
In the last 30 years, per capita annual fishery output in mainland China has been increasing at a rate of 7.7% on average (Fig. 3), growing much faster than the country's population (at 1.0% per year). The increasing supply of fishery products and other animal protein has significantly improved the nutritional structure of residents (Table 2). Life expectancy in mainland China has increased from 68.6 years in 1990 to 74.8 years in 2010 (NBOSOC 2011). This may be partly due to the significant increase in the supply of fishery products.
Table 2. Per capita annual purchases (kg) of major food commodities of urban households in mainland China from 1985 to 2010
|Edible vegetable oil||5.76||6.40||7.11||8.16||9.25||8.84|
|Beef and mutton||2.04||3.28||2.44||3.33||3.71||3.78|
|Fresh melons and fruits|| ||41.11||44.96||57.48||56.69||54.23|
China accounted for more than 60% of global aquaculture production by weight in 2010 (FAO 2012). The output of national marine aquaculture was 14.82 million tonnes in 2010. Shellfish output was the highest, amounting to 11.08 million tonnes and accounting for 75% of total marine aquaculture output. Output of seaweed was the second highest, reaching almost 1.54 million tonnes. These were followed by crustaceans (1.06 million tonnes), finfish (0.81 million tonnes) and others (0.33 million tonnes, including sea cucumber, sea urchin and jellyfish). The top 10 species harvested in marine culture were oysters (3.64 million tonnes), clam (3.54 million tonnes), scallop (1.41 million tonnes), kelp (0.88 million tonnes), razor clam (0.71 million tonnes), mussel (0.70 million tonnes), white-leg shrimp (0.61 million tonnes), blood clams (0.31 million tonnes), conch (0.21 million tonnes) and mud crab (0.12 million tonnes). The output of sea bass was the highest of marine cultured fish, amounting to 0.11 million tonnes, followed by large yellow croaker (0.09 million tonnes), flounder (0.08 million tonnes), red fish (Sciaenops ocellatus, 0.05 million tonnes) and grouper (0.05 million tonnes). At the same time, output of inland aquaculture was 23.47 million tonnes, accounting for 61% of the total cultured output in China. Finfish contributed 20.64 million tonnes or 88% of total inland culture output. Crustaceans reached 2.13 million tonnes, followed by other freshwater creatures (soft-shell turtle, frogs, 0.43 million tonnes), shellfish (0.25 million tonnes) and 9691 tonnes of algae. The top ten species harvested in inland culture were grass carp (4.22 million tonnes), silver carp (3.61 million tonnes), big head carp (2.55 million tonnes), common carp (2.54 million tonnes), crucian carp (2.22 million tonnes), tilapia (1.33 million tonnes), Chinese breams (0.65 million tonnes), white-leg shrimp (0.62 million tonnes), Chinese river crab (0.59 million tonnes) and black carp (0.42 million tonnes).
The marine capture sector is an important component of China's fishing industry. In 2010, marine capture fisheries contributed 13.15 million tonnes (including output from distant marine capture). The main captured products consisted of six groups: finfish (8.25 million tonnes); crustaceans (2.04 million tonnes); cephalopods (0.66 million tonnes); shellfish (0.62 million tonnes); seaweed (0.02 million tonnes); and other (0.43 million tonnes, including jellyfish). The principle species for marine capture fisheries are hairtail (1.19 million tonnes), anchovy (0.60 million tonnes), Japanese scad (0.56 million tonnes), chub mackerel (0.49 million tonnes), Spanish mackerel (0.48 million tonnes), small yellow croaker (0.41 million tonnes), silvery pomfret (0.36 million tonnes), sea eel (0.34 million tonnes), golden threadfin bream (0.31 million tonnes), spinyhead croaker (0.24 million tonnes), leatherjacket (0.20 million tonnes), cardinalfish (0.17 million tonnes), mullet (0.16 million tonnes), ammodytes (0.15 million tonnes), sardine (0.14 million tonnes) and white croaker (0.13 million tonnes).
The output of inland capture fisheries in 2010 was 2.29 million tonnes, originating from both lakes and rivers. In terms of catch composition, finfish formed 1.61 million tonnes, followed by crustaceans (0.34 million tonnes) and shellfish (0.29 million tonnes). The principle captured species are similar to those of inland aquaculture.
The dominant role of marine and inland aquaculture may be for the following reasons. First, with the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Fishery agreements between Korea, Japan and China, a great number of fishers have given up their traditional capture activities and transferred to aquaculture and other ways of earning a living. Second, overexploitation in the past has resulted in a decrease in fish stocks. Third, increasing actions have been taken to protect natural fishery resources, and the avoidance of capture in protected waters and in a fishing moratorium of 2–3 months every year has promoted the development of aquaculture. There has also been considerable technical progress in aquaculture.
In 2010, the Gini coefficient of per capita fishery output value among provinces in mainland China was 0.60. Spatial Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients showed a largely unequal dependence of fisheries between regions (Fig. 4). Concentration ratios CR(4) and CR(8) of fishery output value were 51 and 82%, respectively, indicating the fishery industry of mainland China is highly concentrated in a few provinces with large outputs. The top eight turnover values were achieved by Shandong, Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces in turn. Of which, the first six provinces are located in coastal area of south-east China, the other two are inland provinces in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (Fig. 1).
In general, the value of coastal commercial fisheries was RMB￥ 101 (US$ 16) billion, being three times higher than that of inland fisheries. In some inland provinces, such as Tibet, Gansu and Qinghai in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, fisheries were less developed (Table 1). Accordingly, in the 11 coastal provinces, fisheries provided employment for approximately 7.47 million persons. While in the other 20 inland provinces, the corresponding figure was approximately 6.53 million persons.
On the other hand the first ten provinces with a higher share of fishery value added were Hainan, Fujian, Liaoning, Hubei, Shandong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu in turn. Fishery value added accounted for 7.7% of GDP in Hainan province, an island province with an area of 35 354 km2 in the South China Sea. Fujian and Liaoning came second and third to Hainan in terms of value added, accounting for 5.4 and 3.0%, respectively while in some provinces such as Xizang (Tibet), Qinghai, Gansu, Xinjiang, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia in Northwest China fisheries accounted for <0.1% of regional GDP. The contribution to employment in general coincided with that of regional production (Fig. 5).
The shares of value added are used to calculate location quotients (Table 4). Aquaculture contributed 49% of value added to fisheries in mainland China in 2010. In absolute terms, the 11 provinces on the long coastline of mainland China, including Hainan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shandong, Liaoning, Tianjin and Hebei, produced 68% of the total value added derived from aquaculture. Except for Hebei, aquaculture is a basic industry in all coastal provinces, with a location quotient >1 (Fig. 6). Furthermore, in Fujian, Jiangsu, Liaoning and Tianjin, LQ ≥ 2, fisheries can be considered a strong industry (Fig. 6). Although aquaculture is widely dispersed among all inland provinces, aquaculture is a basic industry only in three provinces along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui (Fig. 6).
Table 4. Location quotients by fishery sectors and regions in mainland China. Provinces are classified as coastal (C) or inland (I)
|Beijing||I||0.43||0.14||0.36|| 0.03|| 0.11|| 0.03|
Figure 6. Location quotients of the primary fisheries by provinces in mainland China. (a) Aquaculture; (b) Capture; (c) Primary fisheries as a whole.
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Capture accounted for 15% of value added by fisheries. It was more concentrated than aquaculture, and heavily concentrated in eight coastal provinces. The location quotients showed that capture fisheries are a very strong industry in coastal Hainan, Fujian, Zhejiang and Liaoning provinces, and a basic industry in coastal provinces of Jiangsu, Shanghai, Shandong and Tianjin. In absolute terms, these eight coastal provinces have produced 75% of the total value added by capture. Capture is also a basic industry in Jiangxi, an inland province (Fig. 6).
As a whole, primary production is reasonably widely dispersed throughout the country. Location quotients show that in four coastal provinces, Hainan, Fujian, Zhejiang and Liaoning, it is a strong basic industry, while in another five coastal provinces of Guangdong, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shandong and Tianjin, it is classified as a basic industry. In addition, it is a basic industry in three inland provinces along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, that is, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui (Fig. 6).
The secondary fisheries sector is less dispersed than primary production. The regional differentiation of location quotients is consistent with that of primary production. Location quotients show that in four coastal provinces, that is, Hainan, Fujian, Shandong and Liaoning, it is a strong basic industry, while in the two coastal provinces of Guangdong and Zhejiang, it is classified as a basic industry. In absolute terms, these six coastal provinces produced 80% of the total value added derived from secondary production including fish processing, fishery machinery manufacturing, fish feed and drug and infrastructure construction. It is a basic industry in only two inland provinces, that is, Hubei and Jiangxi (Fig. 7).
The fisheries tertiary sector is much more heavily concentrated than secondary and primary production (Fig. 8). It can be classified as a strong basic industry in two coastal provinces (Fujian and Shandong) and one inland region (Hubei). In another three coastal provinces (Hainan, Guangxi and Liaoning), it is a basic industry. The tertiary sector, in general, is concentrated in the coastal regions.
Considering all sectors, among all of the 31 administrative provinces in mainland China, fisheries can be classified as a strong basic industry in four coastal provinces, Hainan, Fujian, Shandong and Liaoning, and in two inland provinces in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River – Hubei and Jiangxi. Meanwhile, in another three coastal provinces, that is, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangxi and one inland province, that is, Anhui, fisheries acts as a basic industry (Fig. 9; Table 4).