We report results from 28 yr of a midwater trawl survey of pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) conducted off the central California coast. The fishery-independent survey is designed to provide pre-recruit indices of abundance for use in groundfish stock assessments. Standardized catch rate time series for 10 species were developed from delta-generalized linear models that include main effects for year, station, and calendar date. Results show that interannual fluctuations of all 10 species are strongly coherent but highly variable, demonstrating both high- and low-frequency components. A similarly coherent result is observed in the size composition of fish, with large fish associated with elevated catch rates. In contrast, spatial and seasonal patterns of abundance show greater species-specific differences. A comparison of the shared common trend in pelagic juvenile rockfish abundance, derived from principal components analysis, with recruitments from five rockfish stock assessments shows that the time series are significantly correlated. An examination of oceanographic factors associated with year-to-year variability indicates that a signature of upwelled water at the time of the survey is only weakly related to abundance. Likewise, basin-scale indices (the Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, and the Northern Oscillation Index) are poorly correlated with abundance. In contrast, sea level anomalies in the months preceding the survey are well correlated with reproductive success. In particular, equatorward anomalies in the alongshore flow field following the spawning season are associated with elevated survival and poleward anomalies with poor survival.