Biological responses to permafrost thaw slumping in Canadian Arctic lakes


  • Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.

John P. Smol, Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Queen’s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, Canada K7L3N6. E-mail:


1. Rapid environmental change occurring in high-latitude regions has the potential to cause extensive thawing of permafrost. Retrogressive thaw slumps are a particularly spectacular form of permafrost degradation that can significantly impact lake–water chemistry; however, to date, the effects on aquatic biota have received little attention.

2. We used a diatom-based palaeolimnological approach featuring a paired lake study design to examine the impact of thaw slumping on freshwater ecosystems in the low Arctic of western Canada. We compared biological responses in six lakes affected by permafrost degradation with six undisturbed, reference lakes.

3. Slump-affected lakes exhibited greater biological change than the paired reference systems, although all systems have undergone ecologically significant changes over the last 200 years. Four of the six reference systems showed an increase in the relative abundance of planktonic algal taxa (diatoms and scaled chrysophytes), the earliest beginning about 1900, consistent with increased temperature trends in this region.

4. The response of sedimentary diatoms to thaw slumping was understandably variable, but primarily related to the intensity of disturbance and associated changes in aquatic habitat. Five of the slump-affected lakes recorded increases in the abundance and diversity of periphytic diatoms at the presumed time of slump initiation, consistent with increased water clarity and subsequent development of aquatic macrophyte communities. Slump-affected lakes generally displayed lower nutrient levels; however, in one system, thaw slumping, induced by an intense fire at the site in 1968, ostensibly led to pronounced nutrient enrichment that persists today.

5. Our results demonstrate that retrogressive thaw slumping represents an important stressor to the biological communities of lakes in the western Canadian Arctic and can result in a number of limnological changes. We also show that palaeolimnological methods are effective for inferring the timing and response of aquatic ecosystems to permafrost degradation. These findings provide the first long-term perspective on the biological response to permafrost thaw, a stressor that will become increasingly important as northern landscapes respond to climate change.