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Retraction: The following articles from Genes, Brain and Behavior have been retracted by agreement between the Journal's Editor-in-Chief Andrew Holmes, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd:

“Association of up-regulated Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling with autism” by H. Zou, Y. Yu, A. M. Sheikh, M. Malik, K. Yang, G. Wen, K. K. Chadman, W. T. Brown, X. Li, published in Volume 10, Issue 5, 2011, pages 615–624 (available through www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com).

“Up-regulation of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling and ERK5 in the brain of autistic subjects” by K. Yang, A. M. Sheikh, M. Malik, G. Wen, H. Zou, W. T. Brown, X. Li, published in Volume 10, Issue 8, 2011, pages 834–843 (available through www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com).

The retraction is on the basis of significant errors with presentation of some of the data reported in these papers. Concerns about the published data came to light following careful scrutiny of the protein blots and corresponding data quantification for certain experiments. Further investigation revealed that in the article entitled ‘Up-regulation of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling and ERK5 in the brain of autistic subjects,’ for certain blots depicting actin bands, used to compare blots depicting p-C-Raf and C-Raf, images were truncated and therefore did not show all of the samples that were run. Other blots depicting actin bands, used to compare blots depicting Erk1/2 and Erk5, were inserted into the figure upside down. In other cases, there were discrepancies between the number of Erk1/2 samples shown in a blot and the number of samples that were quantified. In the article entitled ‘Association of up-regulated Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling with autism,’ a blot depicting actin bands purportedly from mouse tissues samples was the same representation of an actin band from human samples presented in the article entitled ‘Up-regulation of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling and ERK5 in the brain of autistic subjects.’

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