SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adamo, S.A. & Webster, J.P. (2013) Neural parasitology: how parasites manipulate host behaviour. J Exp Biol 216, 12.
  • Ait-Belgnaoui, A., Durand, H., Cartier, C., Chaumaz, G., Eutamene, H., Ferrier, L., Houdeau, E., Fioramonti, J., Bueno, L. & Theodorou, V. (2012) Prevention of gut leakiness by a probiotic treatment leads to attenuated HPA response to an acute psychological stress in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37, 18851895.
  • Alenghat, T., Osborne, L.C., Saenz, S.A. et al. (2013) Histone deacetylase 3 coordinates commensal-bacteria-dependent intestinal homeostasis. Nature 504, 153157.
  • Arumugam, M., Raes, J., Pelletier, E. et al. (2011) Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome. Nature 473, 174180.
  • Bähr, K.H. (1970) Observations of the behavior of gnotobiotic piglets. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 77, 138140.
  • Bailey, M.T. & Coe, C.L. (1999) Maternal separation disrupts the integrity of the intestinal microflora in infant rhesus monkeys. Dev Psychobiol 35, 146155.
  • Bailey, M.T., Dowd, S.E., Galley, J.D., Hufnagle, A.R., Allen, R.G. & Lyte, M. (2011) Exposure to a social stressor alters the structure of the intestinal microbiota: implications for stressor-induced immunomodulation. Brain Behav Immun 25, 397407.
  • Bercik, P., Collins, S.M. & Verdu, E.F. (2012) Microbes and the gut-brain axis. Neurogastroenterol Motil 24, 405413.
  • Bercik, P., Denou, E., Collins, J., Jackson, W., Lu, J., Jury, J., Deng, Y., Blennerhassett, P., Macri, J., McCoy, K.D., Verdu, E.F. & Collins, S.M. (2011a) The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and behavior in mice. Gastroenterology 141, 599609, 609.e1–3.
  • Bercik, P., Park, A.J., Sinclair, D., Khoshdel, A., Lu, J., Huang, X., Deng, Y., Blennerhassett, P.A., Fahnestock, M., Moine, D., Berger, B., Huizinga, J.D., Kunze, W., McLean, P.G., Bergonzelli, G.E., Collins, S.M. & Verdu, E.F. (2011b) The anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut–brain communication. Neurogastroenterol Motil 23, 11321139.
  • Bercik, P., Verdu, E.F., Foster, J.A., Macri, J., Potter, M., Huang, X., Malinowski, P., Jackson, W., Blennerhassett, P., Neufeld, K.A., Lu, J., Khan, W.I., Corthesy-Theulaz, I., Cherbut, C., Bergonzelli, G.E. & Collins, S.M. (2010) Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry in mice. Gastroenterology 139, 21022112.e1.
  • Berdoy, M., Webster, J.P. & Macdonald, D.W. (2000) Fatal attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Proc Biol Sci 267, 15911594.
  • Berenreiterová, M., Flegr, J., Kuběna, A.A. & Němec, P. (2011) The distribution of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain of a mouse with latent toxoplasmosis: implications for the behavioral manipulation hypothesis. PLoS ONE 6, e28925.
  • Berer, K. & Krishnamoorthy, G. (2012) Commensal gut flora and brain autoimmunity: a love or hate affair? Acta Neuropathol 123, 639651.
  • Berrill, J.W., Gallacher, J., Hood, K., Green, J.T., Matthews, S.B., Campbell, A.K. & Smith, A. (2013) An observational study of cognitive function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Neurogastroenterol Motil 25, 918e704.
  • Bierne, H. (2013) Nuclear microbiology—bacterial assault on the nucleolus. EMBO Rep 14, 663664.
  • Bierne, H. & Cossart, P. (2012) When bacteria target the nucleus: the emerging family of nucleomodulins. Cell Microbiol 14, 622633.
  • Bierne, H., Hamon, M. & Cossart, P. (2012) Epigenetics and bacterial infections. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2, a010272.
  • Bohacek, J., Gapp, K., Saab, B.J. & Mansuy, I.M. (2013) Transgenerational epigenetic effects on brain functions. Biol Psychiatry 73, 313320.
  • Borody, T.J., Torres, M., Campbell, J., Hills, L. & Ketheeswaran, S. (2000) Clinical vignettes – functional bowel disorders. Am J Gastroenterol 104, S367S368.
  • Bravo, J.A., Forsythe, P., Chew, M.V., Escaravage, E., Savignac, H.M., Dinan, T.G., Bienenstock, J. & Cryan, J.F. (2011) Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 1605016055.
  • Brucker, R.M. & Bordenstein, S.R. (2012) The roles of host evolutionary relationships (genus: Nasonia) and development in structuring microbial communities. Evol Int J Org Evol 66, 349362.
  • Brucker, R.M. & Bordenstein, S.R. (2013) The capacious hologenome. Zoology (Jena) 116, 260261.
  • Cahenzli, J., Balmer, M.L. & McCoy, K.D. (2013) Microbial-immune cross-talk and regulation of the immune system. Immunology 138, 1222.
  • Candido, E.P., Reeves, R. & Davie, J.R. (1978) Sodium butyrate inhibits histone deacetylation in cultured cells. Cell 14, 105113.
  • Cebra, J.J. (1999) Influences of microbiota on intestinal immune system development. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 1046S1051S.
  • Cézilly, F., Thomas, F., Médoc, V. & Perrot-Minnot, M.-J. (2010) Host-manipulation by parasites with complex life cycles: adaptive or not? Trends Parasitol 26, 311317.
  • Chen, J., Ghazawi, F.M. & Li, Q. (2010) Interplay of bromodomain and histone acetylation in the regulation of p300-dependent genes. Epigenetics 5, 509515.
  • Chiu, I.M., Heesters, B.A., Ghasemlou, N., Von Hehn, C.A., Zhao, F., Tran, J., Wainger, B., Strominger, A., Muralidharan, S., Horswill, A.R., Wardenburg, J.B., Hwang, S.W., Carroll, M.C. & Woolf, C.J. (2013) Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation. Nature 501, 5257.
  • Chung, H., Pamp, S.J., Hill, J.A., Surana, N.K., Edelman, S.M., Troy, E.B., Reading, N.C., Villablanca, E.J., Wang, S., Mora, J.R., Umesaki, Y., Mathis, D., Benoist, C., Relman, D.A. & Kasper, D.L. (2012) Gut immune maturation depends on colonization with a host-specific microbiota. Cell 149, 15781593.
  • Claesson, M.J., Jeffery, I.B., Conde, S. et al. (2012) Gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly. Nature 488, 178184.
  • Clarke, G., Cryan, J.F., Dinan, T.G. & Quigley, E.M. (2012) Review article: probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome – focus on lactic acid bacteria. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 35, 403413.
  • Clarke, G., Grenham, S., Scully, P., Fitzgerald, P., Moloney, R.D., Shanahan, F., Dinan, T.G. & Cryan, J.F. (2013) The microbiome-gut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner. Mol Psychiatry 18, 666673.
  • Collins, L.M., Toulouse, A., Connor, T.J. & Nolan, Y.M. (2012a) Contributions of central and systemic inflammation to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Neuropharmacology 62, 21542168.
  • Collins, S.M., Kassam, Z. & Bercik, P. (2013) The adoptive transfer of behavioral phenotype via the intestinal microbiota: experimental evidence and clinical implications. Curr Opin Microbiol 16, 240245.
  • Collins, S.M., Surette, M. & Bercik, P. (2012b) The interplay between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. Nat Rev Microbiol 10, 735742.
  • Cowansage, K.K., LeDoux, J.E. & Monfils, M.-H. (2010) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: a dynamic gatekeeper of neural plasticity. Curr Mol Pharmacol 3, 1229.
  • Critchfield, J.W., van Hemert, S., Ash, M., Mulder, L. & Ashwood, P. (2011) The potential role of probiotics in the management of childhood autism spectrum disorders. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2011, 161358.
  • Cryan, J.F. & Dinan, T.G. (2012) Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci 13, 701712.
  • Cryan, J.F. & O'Mahony, S.M. (2011) The microbiome-gut-brain axis: from bowel to behavior. Neurogastroenterol Motil 23, 187192.
  • Czirr, E. & Wyss-Coray, T. (2012) The immunology of neurodegeneration. J Clin Invest 122, 11561163.
  • Da Silva, W.C., Bonini, J.S., Bevilaqua, L.R.M., Medina, J.H., Izquierdo, I. & Cammarota, M. (2008) Inhibition of mRNA synthesis in the hippocampus impairs consolidation and reconsolidation of spatial memory. Hippocampus 18, 2939.
  • Das, R. & Kanungo, M.S. (1979) Effects of polyamines on phosphorylation and acetylation of histones of the cerebral cortex of rats of various ages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 90, 708714.
  • Davari, S., Talaei, S.A., Alaei, H. & Salami, M. (2013) Probiotics treatment improves diabetes-induced impairment of synaptic activity and cognitive function: behavioral and electrophysiological proofs for the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Neuroscience 240, 287296.
  • Dave, M., Higgins, P.D., Middha, S. & Rioux, K.P. (2012) The human gut microbiome: current knowledge, challenges, and future directions. Transl Res J Lab Clin Med 160, 246257.
  • Davie, J.R. (2003) Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by butyrate. J Nutr 133, 2485S2493S.
  • Day, J.J. & Sweatt, J.D. (2010) DNA methylation and memory formation. Nat Neurosci 13, 13191323.
  • Day, J.J. & Sweatt, J.D. (2011a) Epigenetic mechanisms in cognition. Neuron 70, 813829.
  • Day, J.J. & Sweatt, J.D. (2011b) Cognitive neuroepigenetics: a role for epigenetic mechanisms in learning and memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem 96, 212.
  • De Theije, C.G.M., Wu, J., da Silva, S.L., Kamphuis, P.J., Garssen, J., Korte, S.M. & Kraneveld, A.D. (2011) Pathways underlying the gut-to-brain connection in autism spectrum disorders as future targets for disease management. Eur J Pharmacol 668 (Suppl 1), S70S80.
  • Desbonnet, L., Clarke, G., Shanahan, F., Dinan, T.G. & Cryan, J.F. (2013) Microbiota is essential for social development in the mouse. Mol Psychiatry. DOI:10.1038/mp.2013.65.
  • Desbonnet, L., Garrett, L., Clarke, G., Kiely, B., Cryan, J.F. & Dinan, T.G. (2010) Effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis in the maternal separation model of depression. Neuroscience 170, 11791188.
  • Dinan, T.G., Cryan, J., Shanahan, F., Keeling, P.W.N. & Quigley, E.M.M. (2010) IBS: an epigenetic perspective. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 7, 465471.
  • Dinan, T.G., Stanton, C. & Cryan, J.F. (2013) Psychobiotics: a novel class of psychotropic. Biol Psychiatry 74, 720726.
  • Dominguez-Bello, M.G., Costello, E.K., Contreras, M., Magris, M., Hidalgo, G., Fierer, N. & Knight, R. (2010) Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 1197111975.
  • Douglas-Escobar, M., Elliott, E. & Neu, J. (2013) Effect of intestinal microbial ecology on the developing brain. JAMA Pediatr 167, 374379.
  • Dulac, C. (2010) Brain function and chromatin plasticity. Nature 465, 728735.
  • Eisenberg, T., Knauer, H., Schauer, A. et al. (2009) Induction of autophagy by spermidine promotes longevity. Nat Cell Biol 11, 13051314.
  • Eskandarian, H.A., Impens, F., Nahori, M.-A., Soubigou, G., Coppée, J.-Y., Cossart, P. & Hamon, M.A. (2013) A role for SIRT2-dependent histone H3K18 deacetylation in bacterial infection. Science 341, 1238858.
  • Espallergues, J., Teegarden, S.L., Veerakumar, A., Boulden, J., Challis, C., Jochems, J., Chan, M., Petersen, T., Deneris, E., Matthias, P., Hahn, C.-G., Lucki, I., Beck, S.G. & Berton, O. (2012) HDAC6 regulates glucocorticoid receptor signaling in serotonin pathways with critical impact on stress resilience. J Neurosci 32, 44004416.
  • Evans, J.M., Morris, L.S. & Marchesi, J.R. (2013) The gut microbiome: the role of a virtual organ in the endocrinology of the host. J Endocrinol 218, R37R47.
  • Fischer, A., Sananbenesi, F., Mungenast, A. & Tsai, L.-H. (2010) Targeting the correct HDAC(s) to treat cognitive disorders. Trends Pharmacol Sci 31, 605617.
  • Fischer, A., Sananbenesi, F., Wang, X., Dobbin, M. & Tsai, L.-H. (2007) Recovery of learning and memory is associated with chromatin remodelling. Nature 447, 178182.
  • Flegr, J. (2013) How and why Toxoplasma makes us crazy. Trends Parasitol 29, 156163.
  • Forsythe, P. & Kunze, W.A. (2013) Voices from within: gut microbes and the CNS. Cell Mol Life Sci 70, 5569.
  • Foster, J.A. & Neufeld, K.-A.M. (2013) Gut–brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression. Trends Neurosci 36, 305312.
  • Francis, D.D., Szegda, K., Campbell, G., Martin, W.D. & Insel, T.R. (2003) Epigenetic sources of behavioral differences in mice. Nat Neurosci 6, 445446.
  • Frank, D.N. & Pace, N.R. (2008) Gastrointestinal microbiology enters the metagenomics era. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24, 410.
  • Franzenburg, S., Walter, J., Künzel, S., Wang, J., Baines, J.F., Bosch, T.C.G. & Fraune, S. (2013) Distinct antimicrobial peptide expression determines host species-specific bacterial associations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110, E3730E3738.
  • Fukudo, S. & Kanazawa, M. (2011) Gene, environment, and brain-gut interactions in irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 26 (Suppl 3), 110115.
  • Funkhouser, L.J. & Bordenstein, S.R. (2013) Mom knows best: the universality of maternal microbial transmission. PLoS Biol 11, e1001631.
  • Gómez-Díaz, E., Jordà, M., Peinado, M.A. & Rivero, A. (2012) Epigenetics of host–pathogen interactions: the road ahead and the road behind. PLoS Pathog 8, e1003007.
  • Gondalia, S.V., Palombo, E.A., Knowles, S.R., Cox, S.B., Meyer, D. & Austin, D.W. (2012) Molecular characterisation of gastrointestinal microbiota of children with autism (with and without gastrointestinal dysfunction) and their neurotypical siblings. Autism Res 5, 419427.
  • Govindarajan, N., Agis-Balboa, R.C., Walter, J., Sananbenesi, F. & Fischer, A. (2011) Sodium butyrate improves memory function in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model when administered at an advanced stage of disease progression. J Alzheimers Dis 26, 187197.
  • Gräff, J. & Tsai, L.-H. (2013a) Histone acetylation: molecular mnemonics on the chromatin. Nat Rev Neurosci 14, 97111.
  • Gräff, J. & Tsai, L.-H. (2013b) The potential of HDAC inhibitors as cognitive enhancers. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 53, 311330.
  • Grafodatskaya, D., Chung, B., Szatmari, P. & Weksberg, R. (2010) Autism spectrum disorders and epigenetics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49, 794809.
  • Grenham, S., Clarke, G., Cryan, J.F. & Dinan, T.G. (2011) Brain-gut-microbe communication in health and disease. Front Physiol 2, 94.
  • Gupta, V.K., Scheunemann, L., Eisenberg, T., Mertel, S., Bhukel, A., Koemans, T.S., Kramer, J.M., Liu, K.S.Y., Schroeder, S., Stunnenberg, H.G., Sinner, F., Magnes, C., Pieber, T.R., Dipt, S., Fiala, A., Schenck, A., Schwaerzel, M., Madeo, F. & Sigrist, S.J. (2013) Restoring polyamines protects from age-induced memory impairment in an autophagy-dependent manner. Nat Neurosci 16, 14531460.
  • Hamon, M.A. & Cossart, P. (2008) Histone modifications and chromatin remodeling during bacterial infections. Cell Host Microbe 4, 100109.
  • Hargreaves, D.C., Horng, T. & Medzhitov, R. (2009) Control of inducible gene expression by signal-dependent transcriptional elongation. Cell 138, 129145.
  • Diaz Heijtz, R.D., Wang, S., Anuar, F., Qian, Y., Björkholm, B., Samuelsson, A., Hibberd, M.L., Forssberg, H. & Pettersson, S. (2011) Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 30473052.
  • Holliday, R. (1987) The inheritance of epigenetic defects. Science 238, 163170.
  • Hooper, L.V., Littman, D.R. & Macpherson, A.J. (2012) Interactions between the microbiota and the immune system. Science 336, 12681273.
  • Human Microbiome Project Consortium (2012) Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486, 207214.
  • Igaz, L.M., Bekinschtein, P., Vianna, M.M.R., Izquierdo, I. & Medina, J.H. (2004) Gene expression during memory formation. Neurotox Res 6, 189204.
  • Igaz, L.M., Vianna, M.R.M., Medina, J.H. & Izquierdo, I. (2002) Two time periods of hippocampal mRNA synthesis are required for memory consolidation of fear-motivated learning. J Neurosci 22, 67816789.
  • Jaenisch, R. & Bird, A. (2003) Epigenetic regulation of gene expression: how the genome integrates intrinsic and environmental signals. Nat Genet 33 (Suppl), 245254.
  • Jeffery, I.B., O'Toole, P.W., Öhman, L., Claesson, M.J., Deane, J., Quigley, E.M.M. & Simrén, M. (2012) An irritable bowel syndrome subtype defined by species-specific alterations in faecal microbiota. Gut 61, 9971006.
  • Jochems, J., Boulden, J., Lee, B.G., Blendy, J.A., Jarpe, M., Mazitschek, R., Van Duzer, J.H., Jones, S. & Berton, O. (2013) Antidepressant-like properties of novel HDAC6-selective inhibitors with improved brain bioavailability. Neuropsychopharmacology. DOI:10.1038/npp.2013.207.
  • Kaas, G.A., Zhong, C., Eason, D.E., Ross, D.L., Vachhani, R.V., Ming, G.-L., King, J.R., Song, H. & Sweatt, J.D. (2013) TET1 controls CNS 5-methylcytosine hydroxylation, active DNA demethylation, gene transcription, and memory formation. Neuron 79, 10861093.
  • Kennedy, P.J., Clarke, G., O'Neill, A., Groeger, J.A., Quigley, E.M.M., Shanahan, F., Cryan, J.F. & Dinan, T.G. (2013) Cognitive performance in irritable bowel syndrome: evidence of a stress-related impairment in visuospatial memory. Psychol Med, 114.
  • Korolev, N., Vorontsova, O.V. & Nordenskiöld, L. (2007) Physicochemical analysis of electrostatic foundation for DNA-protein interactions in chromatin transformations. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 95, 2349.
  • Kosik, K.S., Rapp, P.R., Raz, N., Small, S.A., Sweatt, J.D. & Tsai, L.-H. (2012) Mechanisms of age-related cognitive change and targets for intervention: epigenetics. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 67, 741746.
  • Kovacs, A., Ben-Jacob, N., Tayem, H., Halperin, E., Iraqi, F.A. & Gophna, U. (2011) Genotype is a stronger determinant than sex of the mouse gut microbiota. Microb Ecol 61, 423428.
  • Kristensson, K. (2011) Microbes' roadmap to neurons. Nat Rev Neurosci 12, 345357.
  • Lampron, A., Elali, A. & Rivest, S. (2013) Innate immunity in the CNS: redefining the relationship between the CNS and Its environment. Neuron 78, 214232.
  • Landry, C.D., Kandel, E.R. & Rajasethupathy, P. (2013) New mechanisms in memory storage: piRNAs and epigenetics. Trends Neurosci 36, 535542.
  • Latham, T., Mackay, L., Sproul, D., Karim, M., Culley, J., Harrison, D.J., Hayward, L., Langridge-Smith, P., Gilbert, N. & Ramsahoye, B.H. (2012) Lactate, a product of glycolytic metabolism, inhibits histone deacetylase activity and promotes changes in gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res 40, 47944803.
  • Ledford, H. (2008) Language: disputed definitions. Nature 455, 10231028.
  • LeRoy, G., Rickards, B. & Flint, S.J. (2008) The double bromodomain proteins Brd2 and Brd3 couple histone acetylation to transcription. Mol Cell 30, 5160.
  • Libersat, F., Delago, A. & Gal, R. (2009) Manipulation of host behavior by parasitic insects and insect parasites. Annu Rev Entomol 54, 189207.
  • Liévin-Le Moal, V. & Servin, A.L. (2013) Pathogenesis of human enterovirulent bacteria: lessons from cultured, fully differentiated human colon cancer cell lines. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 77, 380439.
  • Louis, P. (2012) Does the human gut microbiota contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders? Dig Dis Sci 57, 19871989.
  • Luckey, T.D. (1972) Introduction to intestinal microecology. Am J Clin Nutr 25, 12921294.
  • Lyte, M. (2011) Probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds: microbial endocrinology in the design and use of probiotics. BioEssays News Rev Mol Cell Dev Biol 33, 574581.
  • Lyte, M. (2013) Microbial endocrinology and nutrition: a perspective on new mechanisms by which diet can influence gut-to-brain communication. PharmaNutrition 1, 3539.
  • Lyte, M. & Freestone, P.P.E. (2010) Microbial Endocrinology Interkingdom Signaling in Infectious Disease and Health. Springer, New York.
  • Macfabe, D.F. (2012) Short-chain fatty acid fermentation products of the gut microbiome: implications in autism spectrum disorders. Microb Ecol Health Dis 23.
  • MacFabe, D.F., Cain, N.E., Boon, F., Ossenkopp, K.-P. & Cain, D.P. (2011) Effects of the enteric bacterial metabolic product propionic acid on object-directed behavior, social behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation in adolescent rats: relevance to autism spectrum disorder. Behav Brain Res 217, 4754.
  • Maes, M., Kubera, M., Leunis, J.-C. & Berk, M. (2012) Increased IgA and IgM responses against gut commensals in chronic depression: further evidence for increased bacterial translocation or leaky gut. J Affect Disord 141, 5562.
  • Mao, Y.-K., Kasper, D.L., Wang, B., Forsythe, P., Bienenstock, J. & Kunze, W.A. (2013) Bacteroides fragilis polysaccharide A is necessary and sufficient for acute activation of intestinal sensory neurons. Nat Commun 4, 1465.
  • Marazzi, I., Ho, J.S.Y., Kim, J., Manicassamy, B., Dewell, S., Albrecht, R.A., Seibert, C.W., Schaefer, U., Jeffrey, K.L., Prinjha, R.K., Lee, K., García-Sastre, A., Roeder, R.G. & Tarakhovsky, A. (2012) Suppression of the antiviral response by an influenza histone mimic. Nature 483, 428433.
  • Marques, T.M., Wall, R., Ross, R.P., Fitzgerald, G.F., Ryan, C.A. & Stanton, C. (2010) Programming infant gut microbiota: influence of dietary and environmental factors. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21, 149156.
  • Mason, M.R., Nagaraja, H.N., Camerlengo, T., Joshi, V. & Kumar, P.S. (2013) Deep sequencing identifies ethnicity-specific bacterial signatures in the oral microbiome. PLoS ONE 8, e77287.
  • Matthews, D.M. & Jenks, S.M. (2013) Ingestion of Mycobacterium vaccae decreases anxiety-related behavior and improves learning in mice. Behav Processes 96, 2735.
  • Mayer, E.A. (2011) Gut feelings: the emerging biology of gut-brain communication. Nat Rev Neurosci 12, 453466.
  • Mayer, E.A., Naliboff, B.D. & Chang, L. (2001) Basic pathophysiologic mechanisms in irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis (Basel, Switz) 19, 212218.
  • McKernan, D.P., Fitzgerald, P., Dinan, T.G. & Cryan, J.F. (2010) The probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 displays visceral antinociceptive effects in the rat. Neurogastroenterol Motil 22 (1029–1035), e268.
  • McQuown, S.C. & Wood, M.A. (2011) HDAC3 and the molecular brake pad hypothesis. Neurobiol Learn Mem 96, 2734.
  • McVey Neufeld, K.A., Mao, Y.K., Bienenstock, J., Foster, J.A. & Kunze, W.A. (2013) The microbiome is essential for normal gut intrinsic primary afferent neuron excitability in the mouse. Neurogastroenterol Motil 25, 183188.
  • Mellén, M., Ayata, P., Dewell, S., Kriaucionis, S. & Heintz, N. (2012) MeCP2 binds to 5hmC enriched within active genes and accessible chromatin in the nervous system. Cell 151, 14171430.
  • Minárovits, J. (2009) Microbe-induced epigenetic alterations in host cells: the coming era of patho-epigenetics of microbial infections. A review. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 56, 119.
  • Ming, X., Stein, T.P., Barnes, V., Rhodes, N. & Guo, L. (2012) Metabolic perturbance in autism spectrum disorders: a metabolomics study. J Proteome Res 11, 58565862.
  • Misra, S. & Medhi, B. (2013) Role of probiotics as memory enhancer. Indian J Pharmacol 45, 311312.
  • Montiel-Castro, A.J., González-Cervantes, R.M., Bravo-Ruiseco, G. & Pacheco-López, G. (2013) The microbiota–gut–brain axis: neurobehavioral correlates, health and sociality. Front Integr Neurosci 7, 70.
  • Mulle, J.G., Sharp, W.G. & Cubells, J.F. (2013) The gut microbiome: a new frontier in autism research. Curr Psychiatry Rep 15, 337.
  • Neu, J. & Rushing, J. (2011) Cesarean versus vaginal delivery: long-term infant outcomes and the hygiene hypothesis. Clin Perinatol 38, 321331.
  • Neufeld, K.M., Kang, N., Bienenstock, J. & Foster, J.A. (2011) Reduced anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical change in germ-free mice. Neurogastroenterol Motil 23, 255264.
  • Ng, S.-Y., Lin, L., Soh, B.S. & Stanton, L.W. (2013) Long noncoding RNAs in development and disease of the central nervous system. Trends Genet 29, 461468.
  • Nicholson, J.K., Holmes, E., Kinross, J., Burcelin, R., Gibson, G., Jia, W. & Pettersson, S. (2012) Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions. Science 336, 12621267.
  • Noack, J., Dongowski, G., Hartmann, L. & Blaut, M. (2000) The human gut bacteria bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Fusobacterium varium produce putrescine and spermidine in cecum of pectin-fed gnotobiotic rats. J Nutr 130, 12251231.
  • O'Connor, R.M., Dinan, T.G. & Cryan, J.F. (2012) Little things on which happiness depends: microRNAs as novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of anxiety and depression. Mol Psychiatry 17, 359376.
  • O'Mahony, S.M., Hyland, N.P., Dinan, T.G. & Cryan, J.F. (2011) Maternal separation as a model of brain-gut axis dysfunction. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 214, 7188.
  • Ørom, U.A. & Shiekhattar, R. (2013) Long noncoding RNAs usher in a new era in the biology of enhancers. Cell 154, 11901193.
  • Parent, A. & Carpenter, M.B. (1996) Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
  • Park, A.J., Collins, J., Blennerhassett, P.A., Ghia, J.E., Verdu, E.F., Bercik, P. & Collins, S.M. (2013) Altered colonic function and microbiota profile in a mouse model of chronic depression. Neurogastroenterol Motil 25, 733e575.
  • Peleg, S., Sananbenesi, F., Zovoilis, A., Burkhardt, S., Bahari-Javan, S., Agis-Balboa, R.C., Cota, P., Wittnam, J.L., Gogol-Doering, A., Opitz, L., Salinas-Riester, G., Dettenhofer, M., Kang, H., Farinelli, L., Chen, W. & Fischer, A. (2010) Altered histone acetylation is associated with age-dependent memory impairment in mice. Science 328, 753756.
  • Pennini, M.E., Perrinet, S., Dautry-Varsat, A. & Subtil, A. (2010) Histone methylation by NUE, a novel nuclear effector of the intracellular pathogen chlamydia trachomatis. PLoS Pathog 6, e1000995.
  • Qin, J., Li, R., Raes, J. et al. (2010) A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. Nature 464, 5965.
  • Ravel, J., Gajer, P., Abdo, Z., Schneider, G.M., Koenig, S.S.K., McCulle, S.L., Karlebach, S., Gorle, R., Russell, J., Tacket, C.O., Brotman, R.M., Davis, C.C., Ault, K., Peralta, L. & Forney, L.J. (2011) Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108 (Suppl 1), 46804687.
  • Renthal, W., Maze, I., Krishnan, V., Covington, H.E. 3rd, Xiao, G., Kumar, A., Russo, S.J., Graham, A., Tsankova, N., Kippin, T.E., Kerstetter, K.A., Neve, R.L., Haggarty, S.J., McKinsey, T.A., Bassel-Duby, R., Olson, E.N. & Nestler, E.J. (2007) Histone deacetylase 5 epigenetically controls behavioral adaptations to chronic emotional stimuli. Neuron 56, 517529.
  • Rescigno, M., Urbano, M., Valzasina, B., Francolini, M., Rotta, G., Bonasio, R., Granucci, F., Kraehenbuhl, J.P. & Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P. (2001) Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat Immunol 2, 361367.
  • Reyniers, J.A. (1959) Germfree vertebrates: present status. Ann N Y Acad Sci 78, 3400.
  • Rhee, S.H., Pothoulakis, C. & Mayer, E.A. (2009) Principles and clinical implications of the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 6, 306314.
  • Rolando, M., Sanulli, S., Rusniok, C., Gomez-Valero, L., Bertholet, C., Sahr, T., Margueron, R. & Buchrieser, C. (2013) Legionella pneumophila effector RomA uniquely modifies host chromatin to repress gene expression and promote intracellular bacterial replication. Cell Host Microbe 13, 395405.
  • Rosenberg, E., Koren, O., Reshef, L., Efrony, R. & Zilber-Rosenberg, I. (2007) The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution. Nat Rev Microbiol 5, 355362.
  • Rosenberg, E., Sharon, G. & Zilber-Rosenberg, I. (2009) The hologenome theory of evolution contains Lamarckian aspects within a Darwinian framework. Environ Microbiol 11, 29592962.
  • Rostène, W., Kitabgi, P. & Parsadaniantz, S.M. (2007) Chemokines: a new class of neuromodulator? Nat Rev Neurosci 8, 895903.
  • Rudenko, A., Dawlaty, M.M., Seo, J., Cheng, A.W., Meng, J., Le, T., Faull, K.F., Jaenisch, R. & Tsai, L.-H. (2013) Tet1 is critical for neuronal activity-regulated gene expression and memory extinction. Neuron 79, 11091122.
  • Santos, J., Yang, P.C., Söderholm, J.D., Benjamin, M. & Perdue, M.H. (2001) Role of mast cells in chronic stress induced colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction in the rat. Gut 48, 630636.
  • Schaedler, R.W., Dubs, R. & Costello, R. (1965) Association of germfree mice with bacteria isolated from normal mice. J Exp Med 122, 7782.
  • Schloissnig, S., Arumugam, M., Sunagawa, S., Mitreva, M., Tap, J., Zhu, A., Waller, A., Mende, D.R., Kultima, J.R., Martin, J., Kota, K., Sunyaev, S.R., Weinstock, G.M. & Bork, P. (2013) Genomic variation landscape of the human gut microbiome. Nature 493, 4550.
  • Shanahan, F. (2012) The gut microbiota-a clinical perspective on lessons learned. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 9, 609614.
  • Shankar, V., Agans, R., Holmes, B., Raymer, M. & Paliy, O. (2013) Do gut microbial communities differ in pediatric IBS and health? Gut Microbes 4, 347352.
  • Smits, L.P., Bouter, K.E.C., de Vos, W.M., Borody, T.J. & Nieuwdorp, M. (2013) Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation. Gastroenterology 145, 946953.
  • Söderholm, J.D. & Perdue, M.H. (2001) Stress and gastrointestinal tract. II. Stress and intestinal barrier function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 280, G7G13.
  • Soliman, M.L., Combs, C.K. & Rosenberger, T.A. (2013) Modulation of inflammatory cytokines and mitogen-activated protein kinases by acetate in primary astrocytes. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 8, 287300.
  • Sommer, F. & Bäckhed, F. (2013) The gut microbiota — masters of host development and physiology. Nat Rev Microbiol 11, 227238.
  • Stender, J.D. & Glass, C.K. (2013) Epigenomic control of the innate immune response. Curr Opin Pharmacol 13, 582587.
  • Stilling, R.M. & Fischer, A. (2011) The role of histone acetylation in age-associated memory impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Learn Mem 96, 1926.
  • Sudo, N., Chida, Y., Aiba, Y., Sonoda, J., Oyama, N., Yu, X.-N., Kubo, C. & Koga, Y. (2004) Postnatal microbial colonization programs the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system for stress response in mice. J Physiol 558, 263275.
  • Sweatt, J.D. (2013) The emerging field of neuroepigenetics. Neuron 80, 624632.
  • Szulwach, K.E., Li, X., Li, Y., Song, C.-X., Wu, H., Dai, Q., Irier, H., Upadhyay, A.K., Gearing, M., Levey, A.I., Vasanthakumar, A., Godley, L.A., Chang, Q., Cheng, X., He, C. & Jin, P. (2011) 5-hmC-mediated epigenetic dynamics during postnatal neurodevelopment and aging. Nat Neurosci 14, 16071616.
  • Tapia-Arancibia, L., Aliaga, E., Silhol, M. & Arancibia, S. (2008) New insights into brain BDNF function in normal aging and Alzheimer disease. Brain Res Rev 59, 201220.
  • Thangaraju, M., Gopal, E., Martin, P.M., Ananth, S., Smith, S.B., Prasad, P.D., Sterneck, E. & Ganapathy, V. (2006) SLC5A8 triggers tumor cell apoptosis through pyruvate-dependent inhibition of histone deacetylases. Cancer Res 66, 1156011564.
  • Thomas, C.M., Hong, T., van Pijkeren, J.P., Hemarajata, P., Trinh, D.V., Hu, W., Britton, R.A., Kalkum, M. & Versalovic, J. (2012a) Histamine derived from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri suppresses TNF via modulation of PKA and ERK signaling. PLoS One 7, e31951.
  • Thomas, F., Poulin, R. & Brodeur, J. (2010) Host manipulation by parasites: a multidimensional phenomenon. Oikos 119, 12171223.
  • Thomas, R.H., Meeking, M.M., Mepham, J.R., Tichenoff, L., Possmayer, F., Liu, S. & MacFabe, D.F. (2012b) The enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid alters brain and plasma phospholipid molecular species: further development of a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroinflammation 9, 153.
  • Tillisch, K., Labus, J., Kilpatrick, L., Jiang, Z., Stains, J., Ebrat, B., Guyonnet, D., Legrain-Raspaud, S., Trotin, B., Naliboff, B. & Mayer, E.A. (2013) Consumption of fermented milk product with probiotic modulates brain activity. Gastroenterology 144, 13941401.e4.
  • Tran, L., Chaloner, A., Sawalha, A.H. & Greenwood Van-Meerveld, B. (2013) Importance of epigenetic mechanisms in visceral pain induced by chronic water avoidance stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38, 898906.
  • Tsankova, N.M., Berton, O., Renthal, W., Kumar, A., Neve, R.L. & Nestler, E.J. (2006) Sustained hippocampal chromatin regulation in a mouse model of depression and antidepressant action. Nat Neurosci 9, 519525.
  • Turnbaugh, P.J., Ley, R.E., Hamady, M., Fraser-Liggett, C.M., Knight, R. & Gordon, J.I. (2007) The human microbiome project. Nature 449, 804810.
  • Villeda, S.A., Luo, J., Mosher, K.I. et al. (2011) The ageing systemic milieu negatively regulates neurogenesis and cognitive function. Nature 477, 9094.
  • Vyas, A., Kim, S.-K., Giacomini, N., Boothroyd, J.C. & Sapolsky, R.M. (2007) Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104, 64426447.
  • Waddington, C.H. (1953) Epigenetics and Evolution. Symp Soc Exp Biol 7, 186199.
  • Waldecker, M., Kautenburger, T., Daumann, H., Busch, C. & Schrenk, D. (2008) Inhibition of histone-deacetylase activity by short-chain fatty acids and some polyphenol metabolites formed in the colon. J Nutr Biochem 19, 587593.
  • Walker, M.P., Laferla, F.M., Oddo, S.S. & Brewer, G.J. (2012) Reversible epigenetic histone modifications and Bdnf expression in neurons with aging and from a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Age (Dordr) 35, 519531.
  • Wall, R., Cryan, J.F., Ross, R.P., Fitzger, G.F., Dinan, T.G. & Stanton, C. (2014) Bacterial neuroactive compounds produced by psychobiotics. In Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. Springer, Heidelberg.
  • Wang, W., Kwon, E.J. & Tsai, L.-H. (2012) MicroRNAs in learning, memory, and neurological diseases. Learn Mem 19, 359368.
  • Webster, J.P. (2001) Rats, cats, people and parasites: the impact of latent toxoplasmosis on behaviour. Microbes Infect Institut Pasteur 3, 10371045.
  • Webster, J.P., Kaushik, M., Bristow, G.C. & McConkey, G.A. (2013) Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour? J Exp Biol 216, 99112.
  • Weng, N., Araki, Y. & Subedi, K. (2012) The molecular basis of the memory T cell response: differential gene expression and its epigenetic regulation. Nat Rev Immunol 12, 306315.
  • Zareie, M., Johnson-Henry, K., Jury, J., Yang, P.-C., Ngan, B.-Y., McKay, D.M., Soderholm, J.D., Perdue, M.H. & Sherman, P.M. (2006) Probiotics prevent bacterial translocation and improve intestinal barrier function in rats following chronic psychological stress. Gut 55, 15531560.
  • Zhu, B., Wang, X. & Li, L. (2010) Human gut microbiome: the second genome of human body. Protein Cell 1, 718725.
  • Zoetendal, E.G., Akkermans, A.D., Akkermans-van Vliet, W.M., de Visser, J.A.G. & de Vos, W.M. (2001) The host genotype affects the bacterial community in the human gastronintestinal tract. Microb Ecol Health Dis 13, 129134.