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Genes, Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 13 Issue 1

January 2014

Volume 13, Issue 1

Pages i–iii, 1–125

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editorial
    4. Reviews
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  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editorial
    4. Reviews
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      Introducing G2Breviews (page 1)

      Andrew Holmes

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12111

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editorial
    4. Reviews
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      Defining functional gene-circuit interfaces in the mouse nervous system (pages 2–12)

      M. E. Soden, B. B. Gore and L. S. Zweifel

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12082

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      Combinatorial viral and genetic approaches to studying gene necessity and sufficiency in the mouse brain. Projection-specific genetic necessity can be tested using viral delivery of shRNA or a dominant-negative (DN) version of the gene of interest (a). In this example, the retrograde transducing viral vector (CAV) containing a Cre expression cassette is injected into a target area of interest and a local transducing virus (AAV) containing either a conditional shRNA to the gene of interest or a conditional expression cassette for a DN protein is injected into the area of interest (gray). Intersectional neurons projecting to the target (purple) will express the shRNA or DN and other projection neurons (gray) will be unaffected. Genetic sufficiency can be tested in a brain nucleus of interest on a null allele background by injecting a locally transducing viral vector (b) containing a rescue cassette (AAV-Rescue), but this will be expressed in all neurons within the region injected (green). Alternatively, cell-selective gene sufficiency testing can be performed if the null allele is generated by insertion of Cre into the gene's open reading frame (c). Injection of a conditional rescue cassette (AAV-FLEX-Rescue) into a nucleus of interest restores gene expression only to the neurons endogenously expressing the gene (green). A caveat to this approach is that it will restore expression of the gene to cells projecting to multiple targets. A combined viral vector approach for testing gene sufficiency in neurons projecting to a specific target can also be performed, similar to necessity testing in (a). Here, CAV-Cre is injected into a target of interest and the conditional AAV-FLEX-Rescue virus is injected into the area of interest to express the transgene only in a specific projecting population (d).

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      Beyond modules and hubs: the potential of gene coexpression networks for investigating molecular mechanisms of complex brain disorders (pages 13–24)

      C. Gaiteri, Y. Ding, B. French, G. C. Tseng and E. Sibille

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12106

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      In a research environment dominated by reductionist approaches to brain disease mechanisms, gene network analysis provides a complementary framework in which to tackle the complex dysregulations that occur in neuropsychiatric and other neurological disorders.

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      Gene–environment interactions at the FKBP5 locus: sensitive periods, mechanisms and pleiotropism (pages 25–37)

      A. S. Zannas and E. B. Binder

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12104

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      Simplified model of the pleiotropy of gene–environment interactions (GxEs) at the FKBP5 locus via the intracellular crosstalk of FKBP5 with other molecules.

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      Progress in understanding mood disorders: optogenetic dissection of neural circuits (pages 38–51)

      S. Lammel, K. M. Tye and M. R. Warden

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12049

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      Here we review recent advances aided by optogenetic tools in understanding mood disorders.

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      Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder: insights from the methylome (pages 52–68)

      S. Malan-Müller, S. Seedat and S. M. J. Hemmings

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12102

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      This article provides an extensive review of the involvement of DNA methylation in complex disorders, such as PTSD, and how this epigenetic mechanism can help to better understand and treat such disorders.

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      Microbial genes, brain & behaviour – epigenetic regulation of the gut–brain axis (pages 69–86)

      R. M. Stilling, T. G. Dinan and J. F. Cryan

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12109

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      Epigenetics in host–microbe interactions has received little attention. In this review we put forward novel hypotheses.

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      The use of mouse models to unravel genetic architecture of physical activity: a review (pages 87–103)

      E. Kostrzewa and M. J. Kas

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12091

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      We discuss the possibility of integrating available mouse and human genotype and phenotype data to find novel candidate genes for physical activity.

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      Theory of mind and the social brain: implications for understanding the genetic basis of schizophrenia (pages 104–117)

      A. K. Martin, G. Robinson, I. Dzafic, D. Reutens and B. Mowry

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12066

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      Theory of mind is a valid cognitive endophenotype for schizophrenia and should be considered in future studies hoping to address the question of how genetic risk variants are related to schizophrenia.

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      Emerging roles for MEF2 transcription factors in memory (pages 118–125)

      A. J. Rashid, C. J. Cole and S. A. Josselyn

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12058

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      In the brain, transcription factors are critical for linking external stimuli to protein production, enabling neurons and neuronal networks to adapt to the ever-changing landscape. Gene transcription and protein synthesis are also vital for the formation of long-term memory. Members of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors have a well-characterized role in the development of a variety of tissues, but their role in the adult brain is only beginning to be understood. Recent evidence indicates that MEF2 regulates the structural and synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation. However, in stark contrast to most other transcription factors implicated in memory, MEF2-mediated transcription constrains (rather than promotes) memory formation. Here, we review recent data examining the role of MEF2 in adult memory formation in rodents.

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