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Fig. S1 (A) Map showing the location of ODP Leg 113 Site 693 on the Dronning Maud Land Margin, eastern Weddell Sea where Lower Cretaceous siliceous microfossils were recovered (Barker et al., 1990), (B) Diagram showing the general lithology and the location of Lower Cretaceous siliceous microfossil-bearing sediments of ODP Leg 113 Site Hole 693A and Hole 693B, with arrows showing the location of samples studied.

Fig. S2 (A) Map showing the location of ODP Leg 199, Site 1219 (7°48.019′N, 142°00.940′W; 5063 meters below sea level (Steiger, 2006), (B) SEM images of solvent and acid cleaned fossil diatom frustules from ODP Leg 199, Site 1219 with well-preserved fine details, demonstrating that diagenetic alterations were minor.

Fig. S3 Stratigraphic column of marine sediment core ODP Leg 199, Site 1219 with representative lithology, geochronological constraints and base peak chromatogram showing the elution of long-chain polyaminess in the diatom-rich units of the core.

Fig. S4 (A) Map of the western Limfjorden region showing the location of the island of Fur (Pedersen, 2008). The Fur formation consists of clayey, non-calcareous diatomite interbedded with relatively thin beds of volcanic ash and with calcareous concretions (Pedersen & Surlyk, 1983; Pedersen et al., 2004; Pedersen, 2008). The formation was deposited during intense activity of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. (B) Photo showing the diatomite basin that crops out at the surface due to Pleistocene glaciotectonic deformations. (C) SEM picture of diatom frustules from the Fur formation with well-preserved fine details, demonstrating that diagenetic alterations were minor.

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