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Fig. S1 Phase contrast micrograph of granular oxides in uninoculated control microslide.

Fig. S2 Phase contrast micrograph of Mariprofundus ferrooxydans stalk band in a microslide with directionality histograms for five contiguous areas. The far left image shows stalks in front of (outside of) the band. Higher oxygen is to the left and higher Fe(II) is to the right. Gaussian goodness of fit is reported, and for good fits, dispersion is reported. Stalks within the band are directional (good Gaussian fit) while stalks outside the band do not exhibit directional orientation (poor Gaussian fit).

Fig. S3 Bright field micrograph of microfossils in a thin section from the ~170 Ma hydrothermal Fe-Si deposit. Directionality was analyzed for five areas (delineated by blue boxes), including areas within and outside of bands. See Supplementary Fig. 4 for analyses.

Fig. S4 Bright field micrographs of microfossils (see Supplementary Fig. 3) with directionality histograms. Gaussian goodness of fit is reported, and for good fits, dispersion is reported. As with Mariprofundus ferrooxydans cultures, microfossils within the band (A, B, C) are directional (good Gaussian fit) while stalks outside the band (D, E) do not exhibit directional orientation (poor Gaussian fit). Note that while microfossil orientation may not be apparent to the eye in C, this analysis can detect and quantify directionality.

gbi12043-sup-0002-FigS1-S4.pdfapplication/PDF3107KVideo S1 Time-lapse bright field microscope image series of Mariprofundus ferrooxydans stalk band formation in a microslide. Time interval =15 min; total time =5 h 45 min. The oxygen source is on the left; FeS on the right. In this slide, the band was angled due to some oxygen leaking through the microslide side wall (top of image).

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