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Spatial patterns and climate drivers of carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of China

Authors

  • Gui-Rui Yu,

    Corresponding author
    • Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Xian-Jin Zhu,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Yu-Ling Fu,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Hong-Lin He,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Qiu-Feng Wang,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Xue-Fa Wen,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Xuan-Ran Li,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Lei-Ming Zhang,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Li Zhang,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Wen Su,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Sheng-Gong Li,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Xiao-Min Sun,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Yi-Ping Zhang,

    1. Key Lab of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Menglun, China
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  • Jun-Hui Zhang,

    1. Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China
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  • Jun-Hua Yan,

    1. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
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  • Hui-Min Wang,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Guang-Sheng Zhou,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Bing-Rui Jia,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Wen-Hua Xiang,

    1. Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, China
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  • Ying-Nian Li,

    1. Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, China
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  • Liang Zhao,

    1. Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, China
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  • Yan-Fen Wang,

    1. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Pei-Li Shi,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Shi-Ping Chen,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Xiao-Ping Xin,

    1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Feng-Hua Zhao,

    1. Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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  • Yu-Ying Wang,

    1. Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, China
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  • Cheng-Li Tong

    1. Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, China
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Correspondence: Dr Gui-Rui Yu, tel. +86 10 64889432, fax +86 10 64889432, e-mail: yugr@igsnrr.ac.cn

Abstract

Understanding the dynamics and underlying mechanism of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is one of the key issues in global change research. In this study, we quantified the carbon fluxes in different terrestrial ecosystems in China, and analyzed their spatial variation and environmental drivers based on the long-term observation data of ChinaFLUX sites and the published data from other flux sites in China. The results indicate that gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of terrestrial ecosystems in China showed a significantly latitudinal pattern, declining linearly with the increase of latitude. However, GEP, ER, and NEP did not present a clear longitudinal pattern. The carbon sink functional areas of terrestrial ecosystems in China were mainly located in the subtropical and temperate forests, coastal wetlands in eastern China, the temperate meadow steppe in the northeast China, and the alpine meadow in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The forest ecosystems had stronger carbon sink than grassland ecosystems. The spatial patterns of GEP and ER in China were mainly determined by mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas the spatial variation in NEP was largely explained by MAT. The combined effects of MAT and MAP explained 79%, 62%, and 66% of the spatial variations in GEP, ER, and NEP, respectively. The GEP, ER, and NEP in different ecosystems in China exhibited ‘positive coupling correlation’ in their spatial patterns. Both ER and NEP were significantly correlated with GEP, with 68% of the per-unit GEP contributed to ER and 29% to NEP. MAT and MAP affected the spatial patterns of ER and NEP mainly by their direct effects on the spatial pattern of GEP.

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