Table S1. Description of the provenance trial studies. aNumber of populations sampled. bMean number of individuals sampled within populations. Bulk indicates that mixes of seeds without knowledge of genetic identity were collected in the populations. cNumber of provenance trials in the study. dAmplitude of the environmental gradient is given in meters of elevation above sea level for altitudinal gradients and in decimal degrees for latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. When values appear in italic the approximate amplitude is given. eThe levels of population differentiation in the provenance trials were measured either as the proportion of the total phenotypic variation which is between populations (Vpop) or as the proportion of the additive genetic variance which is between populations (QST), which appear in bold. For simplicity, we used QST for both parameters in the text. No differentiation indicates that population differentiation was not significant. fSlopes were calculated for bud flush and bud set only because they were the only traits with enough data to make comparisons between traits and between environmental gradients. No cline indicates that clinal variation was not significant along the environmental gradient considered. n.i. means that the information was not indicated.

Table S2. Nucleotide diversity estimates per gene. aπtotal: Nucleotide diversity per gene calculated for silent and replacement sites. bπsilent: Nucleotide diversity per gene calculated for silent sites only, which correspond to synonymous sites and sites located in noncoding regions (introns or 3′- and 5′-UTR) n.i. means that the value was not indicated. Cells highlighted in gray indicate studies for which average nucleotide diversity were calculated for a set of genes or fragments of genes.

Table S3. SNP effect sizes in association studies. aR² marker: Percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker.

gcb12181-sup-0002-Supporting-information-references.docWord document83K 

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.