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gcb12244-sup-0001-FigureS1.pdfapplication/PDF397KFigure S1. Locations of the sites for the field survey across China. In total, the field survey covered 61 sites invaded by Alternanthera philoxeroides and 715 quadrats (0.5 × 0.5 m). Red dots indicate sites that had both A. philoxeroides and A. hygrophila. Blue dots only had A. philoxeroides. Dashed and solid black lines note the northern limits of A. hygrophila's distribution in 1999 and 2012, respectively, where the beetle could overwinter in aquatic habitats and establish sustainable populations. Dashed and solid red lines represent the northern limits of A. philoxeroides' distribution in 1999 and 2012, respectively. The triangle indicates the experimental site, and the star indicates the site where the beetle can currently overwinter in terrestrial habitats.
gcb12244-sup-0002-FigureS2.EPSimage/eps5916KFigure S2. The dynamics of Alternanthera hygrophila adult and larval abundance (mean ± 1 SE) in 2011 under elevated temperatures. Beetle emergence began in middle April and they had the highest density in July. The beetle did not occur under ambient temperature in the field in 2011.
gcb12244-sup-0003-FigureS3.EPSimage/eps5354KFigure S3. The mean number (+1 SE) of Alternanthera hygrophila emergence holes per quadrat at the end of 2010 for each nitrogen and warming treatment combination. Means with the same letters were not significantly different in post hoc multiple comparisons of means at the P = 0.05 level.

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