Data S1. Literature search terms and description of included behavioural categories

Figure S1. (a) Novel objects used for each trial of the neophilia tests; (b) novel objects used for each trial of the neophobia tests; (c) an individual home cage: the novel objects were placed on a perch in the middle of the cage (A) for the neophilia test and on a perch in front of the feeder (B) for the neophobia test.

Table S1. Full model slope estimates and Markov chain Monte Carlo based P-values for the fixed effects in linear mixed-effects models for neophilia and neophobia (control day, first experimental day, and second experimental day). The intercept represents rural females in trial 3 (the reference levels), while the other estimates represent treatment contrasts. T1, T2, and ♂ represent trial 1, trial 2, and males respectively.


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