Primary Research Article
Unraveling environmental drivers of a recent increase in Swiss fungi fruiting
Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Global Change Biology
Volume 19, Issue 9, pages 2785–2794, September 2013
How to Cite
Büntgen, U., Peter, M., Kauserud, H. and Egli, S. (2013), Unraveling environmental drivers of a recent increase in Swiss fungi fruiting. Global Change Biology, 19: 2785–2794. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12263
- Issue online: 6 AUG 2013
- Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 MAY 2013 05:34AM EST
- Manuscript Received: 9 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 9 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 MAY 2013
- Eva Mayr-Stihl Foundation
Figure S1. Sampling site. Location of the Swiss fungus reserve ‘La Chanéaz’, and pictures of the typical temperate forest (upper right) and the protection fence (lower right).
Figure S2. Mushroom examples. The upper row provides examples of typical mycorrhizal fruit bodies from the reserve ‘La Chanéaz’: Boletus edulis (King Bolete) has a cosmopolitan distribution and is one of the most sought-after edible mycorrhizal mushrooms worldwide.
Figure S3. Tree-ring samples. (a) Temporal distribution (start and end years) of the 136 beech core samples, with each horizontal bar representing one individual ring width measurement series (the trees' life span).
Figure S4. Chronology characteristics. Temporal changes in mean series length, tree age, and sample replication of the beech chronology based on 136 core samples.
Figure S5. Tree-ring variation. Bi-weight robust mean chronology of the 136 beech measurement series following different chronology development approaches: (a) without detrending and (b) after power-transformation and detrending with negative exponential or straight-line functions.
Figure S6. Plant phenology. Inter-annual variations (1975–2006) in local phenology from Posieux (46°46′00′'N, 7°6′00′'E, 670m asl) nearby the fungus reserve.
Figure S7. Climatic background. Annual course of monthly resolved temperature means and precipitation totals recorded in Payerne and computed over the full and early/late split periods to emphasize slight temporal changes.
Figure S8. Climate variability. Interannual August (bold) and June-August (thin) climate variability recorded in Payerne.
Figure S9. Cloudiness and wind-speed. Monthly averages of daily mean cloudiness (%) and daily mean wind-speed (m/s) recorded in Payerne.
Figure S10. Temperature forcing. Correlation coefficients (>0.0; 1975–2006) between monthly and seasonal temperature means, mycorrhizal (red) and saprophyte (blue) mushroom data (WWA, AFC and MWS), as well as tree growth (green) using the beech chronology after power-transformation and detrending with negative exponential or straight-line functions.
Figure S11. Fungi-heat response. Correlation coefficients (1975–006) between monthly and seasonal measurements of temperature, sunshine and evapotranspiration and mycorrhizal (red) and saprophyte (blue) mushroom timeseries.
Figure S12. Fungi-hydrological response. Correlation coefficients between monthly and seasonal measurements of humidity, precipitation and cloudcover and mycorrhizal (red) and saprophyte (blue) mushroom timeseries.
Figure S13. Nutritional-mode offset. Difference between weekly counts (WC) of mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi (saprotrophic minus mycorrhizal counts).
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