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Data S1. An expanded explanation of how trends over time were modeled given heterogeneous sampling.

Fig. S1. Study region. Map showing overall distribution of herbarium data across Michigan counties, along with location of climate stations (US Historical Climatology Network).

Fig. S2. Relationships between regression coefficients describing main effects of temperature (left) and precipitation (right) and interactions.

Fig. S3. Relationships between climate sensitivity and trends over time.

Fig. S4. Relationships between species' mean fruiting date and sensitivity to climate and trends over time.

Fig. S5. To test whether the amount of collecting effort affected estimated trends, we plotted relationships between the number of collections and estimated trends over time (a), responses to temperature (b), and responses to precipitation (c). Each point is a species' estimated response. None was significant.

Fig. S6. Responses of genera to climate. The genera analyzed in this study are listed along the y-axis with the number of species analyzed in parentheses. Gray circles are the mean responses of each species within the genus to temperature (a) and precipitation (b). Black circles and intervals show the means and ±1 SD for genera with multiple species.

Fig. S7. Climate trends in the region. Plotted are climate data for individual climate stations used in this study (gray lines) and the annual means of all stations (dark lines).

Table S1. A table of species analyzed in this study, along with their traits and estimated responses to climate.

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