SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Blum H, Nösberger J, Long SP (2003) Variation in acclimation of photosynthesis in Trifolium repens after eight years of exposure to Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE). Journal of Experimental Botany, 54, 27692774.
  • Allard V, Newton PCD, Lieffering M, Clark H, Matthew C, Soussana JF, Gray YS (2003) Nitrogen cycling in grazed pastures at elevated CO2: N returns by ruminants. Global Change Biology, 9, 17311742.
  • Allard V, Newton PCD, Lieffering M, Soussana JF, Grieu P, Matthew C (2004) Elevated CO2 effects on decomposition processes in a grazed grassland. Global Change Biology, 10, 15531564.
  • Anon (2012) A guide to feed planning for sheep farmers - Beef and Lamb New Zealand. Available at: http://www.beeflambnz.com/Documents/Farm/A%20guide%20to%20feed%20planning%20for%20sheep%20farmers.pdf (accessed 20 February 2013).
  • Asner GP, Elmore AJ, Olander LP, Martin RE, Harris T (2004) Grazing systems, ecosystem responses, and global change. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 29, 261299.
  • Blaxter K (1980) The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock: Technical Review. Published on behalf of the Agricultural Research Council by the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough UK.
  • Bullock JM, Franklin J, Stevenson MJ, Silvertown J, Coulson SJ, Gregory SJ, Tofts R (2001) A plant trait analysis of responses to grazing in a long-term experiment. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 253267.
  • Campbell BD, Stafford Smith DM (2000) A synthesis of recent global change research on pasture and rangeland production: reduced uncertainties and their management implications. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 82, 3955.
  • Carrère P, Louault F, De Faccio Carvalho PC, Lafarge M, Soussana JF (2001) How does the vertical and horizontal structure of a perennial ryegrass and white clover sward influence grazing? Grass and Forage Science, 56, 118130.
  • Clark H, Newton PC, Bell CC, Glasgow EM (1995) The influence of elevated CO2 and simulated seasonal changes in temperature on tissue turnover in pasture turves dominated by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens). Journal of Applied Ecology, 32, 128136.
  • Clark H, Newton PCD, Bell CC, Glasgow EM (1997) Dry matter yield, leaf growth and population dynamics in Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens-dominated pasture turves exposed to two levels of elevated CO2. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 304316.
  • Coop IE, Hill MK (1962) The energy requirements of sheep for maintenance and gain. II. Grazing sheep. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 58, 187199.
  • Cornforth IS, Sinclair AG (1984) Fertiliser and Lime Recommendations for Pastures and Crops in New Zealand. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Wellington New Zealand.
  • Cowie JD, Hall AD (1965) Soils and Agriculture of Flock House. Bulls, Manawatu, NZ. NZ Soil Bureau Report no. 1/1965.
  • Daepp M, Nösberger J, Lüscher A (2001) Nitrogen fertilization and developmental stage alter the response of Lolium perenne to elevated CO2. New Phytologist, 150, 347358.
  • Decruyenaere V, Buldgen A, Stilmant D (2009) Factors affecting intake by grazing ruminants and related quantification methods: a review. Biotechnology, Society and Environment, 13, 559573.
  • Dumont B, Carrère P, Ginane C et al. (2011) Plant-herbivore interactions affect the initial direction of community changes in an ecosystem manipulation experiment. Basic and Applied Ecology, 12, 187194.
  • Gibb MJ, Ridout MS (1986) The fitting of frequency distributions to height measurements on grazed swards. Grass and Forage Science, 41, 247249.
  • Grant SA, Suckling DE, Smith HK, Torvell L, Forbes TDA, Hodgson J (1985) Comparative studies of diet selection by sheep and cattle: the hill grasslands. Journal of Ecology, 73, 9871004.
  • Harmens H, Williams PD, Peters SL, Bambrick MT, Hopkins A, Ashenden TW (2004) Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on plant community structure of a temperate grassland are modulated by cutting frequency. Grass and Forage Science, 59, 144156.
  • Hartwig UA, Sadowsky MJ (2006) Biological nitrogen fixation: a key process for the response of grassland ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2. In: Managed Ecosystems and CO2 (eds Nösberger J, Long SP, Norby RJ, Stitt M, Hendrey GR, Blum H), pp. 325336. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Hebeisen T, Lüscher A, Zanetti S et al. (1997) Growth response of Trifolium repens L. and Lolium perenne L. as monocultures and bi-species mixture to free air CO2 enrichment and management. Global Change Biology, 3, 149160.
  • Hodgson J (1979) Nomenclature and definitions in grazing studies. Grass and Forage Science, 34, 1117.
  • Hutchings NJ, Bolton GR, Barthram GT (1992) Decision rules for controlling the sward height of continuously grazed experimental pastures. Grass and Forage Science, 47, 4149.
  • Izaurralde RC, Thomson AM, Morgan JA, Fay PA, Polley HW, Hatfield JL (2011) Climate impacts on agriculture: implications for forage and rangeland production. Agronomy Journal, 103, 371381.
  • Jacobs J (1974) Quantitative measurements of food selection. A modification of the forage ratio and Ivlev's electivity index. Oecologia, 14, 413417.
  • Jones MG (1933) Grassland management and its influence on the sward. Pt.I. factors influencing the growth of pasture plants. The Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 1, 4357.
  • Jones R, Jones R, McDonald C (1995) Some advantages of long-term grazing trials, with particular reference to changes in botanical composition. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 35, 10291038.
  • Kardol P, Cregger MA, Campanv CE, Classen AT (2010) Soil ecosystem functioning under climate change: plant species and community effects. Ecology, 91, 767781.
  • Körner C, Bazzaz FA(eds) (1996) Carbon Dioxide, Populations, and Communities. Academic Press, San Diego, USA.
  • Korte CJ (1981) Grazing management of perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture in late spring. Proceedings New Zealand Grassland Association, 43, 8084.
  • Lazzarotto P, Calanca P, Semenov M, Fuhrer J (2010) Transient responses to increasing CO2 and climate change in an unfertilized grass-clover sward. Climate Research, 41, 221232.
  • Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Rogers A, Long SP, Ort DR (2009) Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60, 28592876.
  • LeCain DR, Morgan JA, Hutchinson GL, Reeder JD, Dijkstra FA (2012) Interactions between elevated atmospheric CO2 and defoliation on North American rangeland plant species at low and high N availability. Grass and Forage Science, 67, 350360.
  • Lee TD, Barrott SH, Reich PB (2011) Photosynthetic responses of 13 grassland species across 11 years of free-air CO2 enrichment is modest, consistent and independent of N supply. Global Change Biology, 17, 28932904.
  • Lewin KF, Hendrey GR, Nagy J, Lamorte RL (1994) Design and application of a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment facility. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 70, 1529.
  • Lobell DB, Field CB (2008) Estimation of the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization effect using growth rate anomalies of CO2 and crop yields since 1961. Global Change Biology, 14, 3945.
  • Lüscher A, Aeschlimann A (2006) Effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on interspecific interactions in temperate grassland model ecosystems. In: Managed Ecosystems and CO2: Case Studies, Processes, and Perspectives (eds Nösberger J, Long SP, Norby RJ, Stitt M, Hendrey GR, Blum H), pp. 337350. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Germany.
  • Lüscher A, Hendrey GR, Nösberger J (1997) Long-term responsiveness to free air CO2 enrichment of functional types, species and genotypes of plants from fertile permanent grassland. Oecologia, 113, 3745.
  • Lüscher A, Fuhrer J, Newton PCD (2005) Global atmospheric change and its effect on managed grassland systems. In Grassland: A Global Resource. Proceedings XX International Grassland Congress (ed. Mcgilloway DA), pp. 251264. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
  • Mannetje LT (1978) Measuring quantity of grassland vegetation. In: Measurement of Grassland Vegetation and Animal Production (ed. Mannetje LT), pp. 6395. CAB, Hurley, UK.
  • Marriott CA, Hood K, Fisher JM, Pakeman RJ (2009) Long-term impacts of extensive grazing and abandonment on the species composition, richness, diversity and productivity of agricultural grassland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 134, 190200.
  • McKeon G, Flood N, Carter J, Stone G, Crimp S, Howden M (2008) Simulation of climate change impacts on carrying capacity and production. Report prepared for the Garnaut Climate Change Review. Available at: http://www.garnautreview.org.au/CA25734E0016A131/WebObj/01-CLivestock/%24File/01-C%20Livestock.pdf (accessed 20 May 2013).
  • Milne JA, Hodgson J, Thompson R, Souter WG, Barthram GT (1982) The diet ingested by sheep grazing swards differing in white clover and perennial ryegrass content. Grass and Forage Science, 37, 209218.
  • Morgan JA, Mosier AR, Milchunas DG, LeCain DR, Nelson JA, Parton WJ (2004) CO2 enhances productivity, alters species composition, and reduces digestibility of shortgrass steppe vegetation. Ecological Applications, 14, 208219.
  • Morgan JA, LeCain DR, Pendall E et al. (2011) C4 grasses prosper as carbon dioxide eliminates desiccation in warmed semi-arid grassland. Nature, 476, 202205.
  • Müller C (2011) Agriculture: harvesting from uncertainties. Nature Climate Change, 1, 253254.
  • Newman JA, Penning PD, Parsons AJ, Harvey A, Orr RJ (1994) Fasting affects intake behaviour and diet preference of grazing sheep. Animal Behaviour, 47, 185193.
  • Newman JA, Parsons AJ, Thornley JHM, Penning PD, Krebs JR (1995) Optimal diet selection by a generalist grazing herbivore. Functional Ecology, 9, 255268.
  • Newton PCD, Clark H, Bell CC, Glasgow EM, Campbell BD (1994) Effects of elevated CO2 and simulated seasonal changes in temperature on the species composition and growth rates of pasture turves. Annals of Botany, 73, 5359.
  • Newton P, Clark H, Edwards GR (2001a) CO2 enrichment of a permanent grassland grazed by sheep using Face Technology. In: Carbon Dioxide and Vegetation: Advanced International Approaches for Absorption of CO2 and Responses to CO2 (ed. Shimizu H), pp. 97105. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Newton PCD, Clark H, Edwards GR (2001b) The effect of climate change on grazed grasslands. In: Structure and Function of Agroecosystem Design and Management (eds Shiyomi MK, Koizumi H), pp. 297311. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  • Newton PCD, Carran RA, Lawrence EJ (2003) Reduced water repellency of a grassland soil under elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biology, 10, 14.
  • Newton PCD, Lieffering M, Bowatte WMSD, Brock SC, Hunt CL, Theobald PW, Ross DJ (2010) The rate of progression and stability of progressive nitrogen limitation at elevated atmospheric CO2 in a grazed grassland over 11 years of Free Air CO2 enrichment. Plant and Soil, 336, 433441.
  • Norby RJ, Zak DR (2011) Ecological lessons from free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 42, 181203.
  • Owensby CE, Cochran RC, Auen LM (1996) Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on forage quality for ruminants. In: Carbon Dioxide, Populations and Communities (eds Körner C, Bazzaz FE), pp. 363371. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • Owensby CE, Ham JM, Knapp AK, Auen LM (1999) Biomass production and species composition change in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem after long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biology, 5, 497506.
  • Parsons A, Dumont B (2003) Spatial heterogeneity and grazing processes. Animal Research, 52, 161179.
  • Parsons AJ, Harvey A, Johnson IR (1991a) Plant-animal interactions in a continuously grazed mixture. II. The role of differences in the physiology of plant growth and of selective grazing on the performance and stability of species in a mixture. Journal of Applied Ecology, 28, 635658.
  • Parsons AJ, Harvey A, Woledge J (1991b) Plant-animal interactions in a continuously grazed mixture. I. Differences in the physiology of leaf expansion and the fate of leaves of grass and clover. Journal of Applied Ecology, 28, 619634.
  • Parsons AJ, Newman JA, Penning PD, Harvey A, Orr RJ (1994) Diet preference of sheep - effects of recent diet, physiological state and species abundance. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 465478.
  • Pendall E, Osanai Y, Williams AL, Hovenden MJ (2011) Soil carbon storage under simulated climate change is mediated by plant functional type. Global Change Biology, 17, 505514.
  • Penman HL (1948) Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil, and grass. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, A193, 120145.
  • Penning P, Newman J, Parsons A, Harvey A, Orr R (1997) Diet preferences of adult sheep and goats grazing ryegrass and white clover. Small Ruminant Research, 24, 175184.
  • Pinheiro J, Bates D, Debroy S, Sarkar D, Team RDC (2013) Nlme: Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. R Package Version 3.1-109. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  • Polley HW, Fay PA, Jin VL, Combs GF Jr (2011a) CO2 enrichment increases element concentrations in grass mixtures by changing species abundances. Plant Ecology, 212, 945957.
  • Polley HW, Morgan JA, Fay PA (2011b) Application of a conceptual framework to interpret variability in rangeland responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Journal of Agricultural Science, 149, 114.
  • Polley HW, Jin VL, Fay PA (2012) Feedback from plant species change amplifies CO2 enhancement of grassland productivity. Global Change Biology, 18, 28132823.
  • Poorter H, Navas ML (2003) Plant growth and competition at elevated CO2: on winners, losers and functional groups. New Phytologist, 157, 175198.
  • Radcliffe JE, Baars JA (1987) Temperate pasture production. In: Ecosystems of the World (ed. Snaydon RW), pp. 717. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Reekie EG, Bazzaz FA (1989) Competition and patterns of resource use among seedlings of five tropical trees grown at ambient and elevated CO2. Oecologia, 79, 212222.
  • Reich PB, Hungate BA, Luo Y (2006) Carbon-nitrogen interactions in terrestrial ecosystems in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37, 611636.
  • Ross DJ, Newton PCD, Tate KR (2004) Elevated CO2 effects on herbage production and soil carbon and nitrogen pools and mineralization in a species-rich, grazed pasture on a seasonally dry sand. Plant and Soil, 260, 183196.
  • Ross DJ, Newton PCD, Tate KR, Luo D (2013) Impact of a low level of CO2 enrichment on soil carbon and nitrogen pools and mineralization rates over ten years in a seasonally dry, grazed pasture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 58, 265274.
  • Rötter RP, Carter TR, Olesen JE, Porter JR (2011) Crop-climate models need an overhaul. Nature Climate Change, 1, 175177.
  • Schenk U, Jäger HJ, Weigel HJ (1997) The response of perennial ryegrass/white clover mini-swards to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations: effects on yield and fodder quality. Grass and Forage Science, 52, 232241.
    Direct Link:
  • Schwinning S, Parsons A (1996a) Analysis of the coexistence mechanisms for grasses and legumes in grazing systems. Journal of Ecology, 84, 799813.
  • Schwinning S, Parsons A (1996b) A spatially explicit population model of stoloniferous N-fixing legumes in mixed pasture with grass. Journal of Ecology, 84, 815826.
  • Soussana J-F, Lüscher A (2007) Temperate grasslands and global atmospheric change: a review. Grass and Forage Science, 62, 127134.
  • Stephens DW, Krebs JR (1986) Foraging Theory. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Stoddard LA, Smith AD, Box TW (1975) Range Management. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Teyssonneyre F, Picon-Cochard C, Falcimagne R, Soussana JF (2002) Effects of elevated CO2 and cutting frequency on plant community structure in a temperate grassland. Global Change Biology, 8, 10341046.
  • Tubiello FN, Soussana JF, Howden SM (2007) Crop and pasture response to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 1968619690.
  • Walters RJK, Evans EM (1979) Evaluation of a sward sampling technique for estimating herbage intake by grazing sheep. Grass and Forage Science, 34, 3744.
  • Woledge J, Reyneri A, Tewson V, Parsons AJ (1992) The effect of cutting on the proportions of perennial ryegrass and white clover in mixtures. Grass and Forage Science, 47, 169179.
  • Zanetti S, Hartwig UA, Van Kessel C et al. (1997) Does nitrogen nutrition restrict the CO2 response of fertile grassland lacking legumes? Oecologia, 112, 1725.