Appendix S1. Derivation of the terms DLD(T) and DLI(T) for Eqns 1b and 2b.

Appendix S2. Model for the seasonal host–parasite dynamics for parasitic nematodes with an indirect life cycle.

Figure S1. Temperature-dependent expected lifetime reproductive output for parasitic nematodes with a direct (R0D(T)) and indirect (R0I(T)) life cycle, respectively, when parasite uptake rates are temperature-dependent.

Figure S2. The effect of imperfect sheltering on the relative fitness of parasitic nematodes with an indirect life cycle compared with those with a direct life cycle.

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