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Figure S1. Tree cover (A), April (B) and July (C) albedo from MODIS and the CMIP5 models for the study domain. The models are arranged in order of increasing tree cover. Model numbers are given in Table 1.

Figure S2. Map of the study domain showing variability in tree cover with treeline shown in black and distance to treeline transects (Figs S3–S9) outlined in red.

Figure S3. Variability in tree cover, mean July–August NDVI and elevation as a function of distance from treeline (top panel). Proportional land cover classes for the sample area (middle panel), and variability in April, May and July albedo as a function of distance from treeline (bottom panel). Data are for the Eastern Yakutiatransect shown in Fig. S2.

Figure S4. Same as Figure S3, but for the Western Yakutia sample transect (Fig. S2).

Figure S5. Same as Figure S3, but for the Yamaliasample transect (Fig. S2).

Figure S6. Same as Figure S3, but for the Nenetsia sample transect (Fig. S2).

Figure S7. Same as Figure S3, but for the Quebec sample transect (Fig. S2).

Figure S8. Same as Figure S3, but for the Northwest Territories sample transect (Fig. S2).

Figure S9. Same as Figure S3, but for the Alaska sample transect (Fig. S2).

Figure S10. Relationship between fractional tree cover and April albedo for MODIS and CMIP5 models.

Figure S11. Relationship between fractional tree cover and July albedo for MODIS and CMIP5 models.

Figure S12. Relationship between percent canopy cover and April–July Seasonal Albedo Change for MODIS data at 500 m resolution (black line) and mean of MODIS data aggregated to CMIP5 model resolution for each model used in this study (red line). Data are aggregated to nearest percent tree cover, and shaded areas represent interquartile ranges.

Table S1. Model parameters and fit statistics for non-linear relationship between fractional canopy cover and albedo. The model is an exponential decay function in the form y = aebx. Parameters for models that were not significant (ns, P > 0.1) are not reported.

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