Tipping points in tropical tree cover: linking theory to data
Article first published online: 23 JAN 2014
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Global Change Biology
Volume 20, Issue 3, pages 1016–1021, March 2014
How to Cite
van Nes, E. H., Hirota, M., Holmgren, M. and Scheffer, M. (2014), Tipping points in tropical tree cover: linking theory to data. Global Change Biology, 20: 1016–1021. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12398
- Issue published online: 28 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 23 JAN 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 19 SEP 2013 08:10AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 29 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Received: 27 MAY 2013
- European Research Council
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Figure S1. Density of equilibrium tree cover as a grayscale for 50 000 simulations with random initial conditions, uniformly distributed precipitation (between 0 and 15) and with two parameters (hP, rm) drawn from normal distributions: (a) Low stochastic: standard deviations hP 0.005, rm 0.003. (b) High stochastic: SD hP 0.1, rm 0.006.
Figure S2. Density of equilibrium tree cover as a grayscale for 5000 simulations with increasing or decreasing precipitation (see methods) and with two parameters (hP, rm) drawn from normal distributions (SD hP 0.05, rm 0.03). (a) Increasing precipitation and (b) decreasing precipitation.
Figure S3. The effect of a regional feedback of vegetation on precipitation on the size of the hysteresis.
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