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Figure S1. Simple regression (SR) (a) and (c) and Partial regression (PR) coefficients (b) and (d) between spring phenological sensitivity (days °C−1) and spring SD (°C) across all stations within each species from Pan European Phenological (PEP725) database. Phenological sensitivity is calculated based on mean preseason temperature. The preseason period is defined as 45 days in (a) and (b), and 90 days in (c) and (d). Partial correlation coefficients are calculated after controlling for cross-station variation in mean temperature and cumulative precipitation within the 60-day centered period. The species is labeled by species identity (ID) (see Table S1). Significance levels are indicated as **, * and o representing < 0.01, < 0.05 and < 0.1.

Figure S2. Simple regression (SR) (a) and partial regression (PR) coefficients (b) between spring phenological sensitivity (days °C−1) and spring SD (°C) across all stations within each species from Pan European Phenological (PEP725) database. The preseason period used to calculate spring phenological sensitivity is defined as 60 days. Partial correlation coefficients are calculated after controlling for cross-station variation in mean temperature and cumulative precipitation over the 60-day centered period. The species is labeled by species identity (ID) (see Table S1). Significance levels are indicated as **, * and o representing < 0.01, < 0.05 and < 0.1. The daily climate data is derived from freely available climate stations in ECA&D.

Figure S3. Simple regression (SR) (a) and partial regression (PR) coefficients (b) between spring phenological sensitivity (days °C−1) and spring SD (°C) across all stations within each species from Pan European Phenological (PEP725) database. Note that the phenological sensitivity is calculated as the linear coefficient between spring phenology and the sum of growing degree day (GDDsum) over the preseason period (60 days). Partial correlation coefficients are calculated after controlling for cross-station variation in mean temperature and cumulative precipitation over the 60-day centered period. The species is labeled by species identity (ID) (see Table S1). Significance levels are indicated as **, * and o representing < 0.01, < 0.05 and < 0.1. The daily climate data are derived from daily gridded E-OBS.

Table S1. Summary of wild species from Pan European Phenological (PEP725) database.

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