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Table S1. Net ecosystem production (NEP), wood production, and growing season soil moisture at Morgan-Monroe State Forest (MMSF) from 2000–2012.

Table S2. Slopes of the relationship between relative growth rates (RGR) and chronic water stress for the top twenty species in the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database.

Table S3. Descriptions of sites used to cross validate volumetric water content (VWC) vs. Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) index relationship and contribution of wood production to net ecosystem production (NEP) (i.e., Wood-to-NEP ratio).

Figure S1. Example of the curve fitting methodology to calculate wood season phenology.

Figure S2. Moisture stress map from 2003–2011 for the conterminous United States generated with mean Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) drought index values used in analysis of regional growth rate responses.

Figure S3. Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) drought index is highly correlated with empirical soil moisture measurements at the Morgan–Monroe State Forest (MMSF).

Figure S4. Relationship between Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) drought index with soil moisture across seven deciduous broadleaf forests sites.

Figure S5. Validation of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) trend at Morgan–Monroe State Forest (MMSF) against that of nearby NWS station.

Figure S6. Growing season air temperature and precipitation at the Morgan–Monroe State Forest (MMSF) from 2000–2012.

Figure S7. Water stress decreases gross primary production (GPP).

Figure S8. From 2010–2012, chronic water stress has opposed the positive impacts of longer growing seasons on net ecosystem production (NEP) observed from 2000–2009 at the Morgan–Monroe State Forest (MMSF).

Figure S9. Shifting phenology results in less C stored in wood.

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