[The copyright line for this article was changed on 21 November 2015, after first online publication.]
Climate change and geothermal ecosystems: natural laboratories, sentinel systems, and future refugia
Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Global Change Biology
Volume 20, Issue 11, pages 3291–3299, November 2014
How to Cite
O'Gorman, E. J., Benstead, J. P., Cross, W. F., Friberg, N., Hood, J. M., Johnson, P. W., Sigurdsson, B. D. and Woodward, G. (2014), Climate change and geothermal ecosystems: natural laboratories, sentinel systems, and future refugia. Global Change Biology, 20: 3291–3299. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12602
- Issue online: 9 OCT 2014
- Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 12 APR 2014 10:44AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 APR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 10 JAN 2014
- NERC. Grant Number: NE/I009280/1
- British Ecological Society. Grant Number: 4009-4884
- NSF. Grant Numbers: DEB-0949774, 0949726
- AU Ideas
|gcb12602-sup-0001-FigS1.tif||image/tif||229K||Figure S1. Schematic diagram showing the spatial distribution of geothermal soil warming at the FORHOT grassland sites in Reykir, Iceland (see Box 1). Isolines show differences in soil temperature (°C) at 10 cm depth between unaffected and warmed areas. (a) Grassland site which has only been exposed to geothermal warming since an earthquake in 2008; (b) Grassland site that has been geothermally heated for a much longer time period.|
|gcb12602-sup-0002-FigS2.tif||image/tif||22102K||Figure S2. (a) Heat exchangers used in the geothermal Hengill region of Iceland. The left panel shows a large heat exchanger (13 m2 surface area) used for the whole-stream warming experiment described in Box 2. This system successfully warmed a 35 m reach of the experimental stream to ~3.5 °C above ambient. The panels on the right show smaller heat exchangers used in the streamside channel experiments described in Box 2. (b) Experimental stream warming array and resulting temperature data across treatments. The channel array on the left provides a platform for replicated studies conducted along a temperature gradient at small temporal and spatial scales. A system of three small heat exchangers, shown in (a), warms water from a cool source to four controlled, higher temperatures (up to a maximum of ~25 °C), allowing three replicated experimental channels at each of five temperatures. The figure on the right shows average temperatures and box plot quantiles for an 8 week experiment in summer 2013.|
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