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gcb12619-sup-0001-SupplementS1.docxWord document36KTable S1. Effects (Hedges g standard mean difference) of (a) local anthropogenic [fishing, nutrient enrichment (NE), heavy metal pollution (Metal) and high sediment loads (Sediment)] and other stressors (presence of competitors, and grazers, removal of canopy algae, low light and salinity, high light and salinity, and increasing temperature, wave exposure and CO2) and (b) multiple local anthropogenic stressors [NO3 and PO4 enrichment, heavy metals A and B, nutrient enrichment (NE), heavy metal pollution (metals)] on the growth of canopy-forming algae. Results are the overall estimate of effect size (overall estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC), QE P-value (the test of the residual heterogeneity), and the effects of the moderators, study identity [estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC)], and life stage (estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC). The number of experiments with standard deviations reported (N with SD), without standard deviations reported (N no SD), the number of experiments at each life stage (Stage 1 = recruits to juveniles and Stage 2 = juveniles to adults) and the Rosenberg fail-safe number of experiments required to overturn the results (Fail safe no). Effects are significant if confidence intervals do not overlap zero. Significant effects are shown in bold print.
gcb12619-sup-0002-SupplementS2.docxWord document20KTable S2. Effects (Hedge g standard mean difference) of local anthropogenic [nutrient enrichment (NE), heavy metal pollution (Metal) and high sediment loads (Sediment)] × other stressors (presence of competitors and grazers, removal of canopy algae, low light and salinity, high light and salinity, and increasing temperature, wave exposure and CO2) on the survival of canopy-forming algae. Results are overall estimate of effect size [overall estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC), QE the test of the residual heterogeneity], and the moderators, study identity [overall estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC)], and life stage [life stage estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC)]. The number of experiments with standard deviations reported (N with SD), without standard deviations reported (N no SD), and the Rosenberg fail-safe number of experiments required to overturn the results (Fail safe no) on the density and survival of canopy-forming algae. Effects are significant if confidence intervals do not overlap zero. Significant effects are shown in bold print.
gcb12619-sup-0003-SupplementS3.docxWord document36KTable S3. Effects (Hedges g standard mean difference) of (a) local anthropogenic [fishing, nutrient enrichment (NE), heavy metal pollution (Metal) and high sediment loads (Sediment)] × other stressors (presence of competitors and grazers, removal of canopy algae, low light or salinity, high light or salinity, and increasing CO2, temperature or wave exposure) and (b) multiple local anthropogenic stressors [NO3 and PO4 enrichment, nutrient enrichment (NE), fishing, heavy metal A and B, heavy metal pollution (Metal) and high sediment loads (sediment)] on the growth of mat-forming algae. Results are the overall estimate of effect size using the standard mean difference [overall estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC), QE p-value (the test of the residual heterogeneity)], and the effects of the moderators, study identity [estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC)], and persistence [estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC)], the number of experiments with standard deviations reported (N with SD), without standard deviations reported (N no SD), the number of experiments for each functional group (ephemeral or turf-forming algae) and the Rosenberg fail-safe number of experiments required to overturn the results (Fail safe no). Effects are significant if confidence intervals do not overlap zero. Significant effects are shown in bold print.
gcb12619-sup-0004-SupplementS4.docxWord document19KTable S4. Effects (Hedges g standard mean difference) of (a) local anthropogenic [fishing, nutrient enrichment (NE), heavy metal pollution (Metal) and high sediment loads (Sediment)] × other stressors (presence of competitors and grazers, removal of canopy algae, low light and salinity, high light and salinity, increasing temperature, wave exposure, CO2 and high UV) and (b) multiple local anthropogenic stressors [fishing and nutrient enrichment (NE)] on the survival of mat-forming algae. Results are the overall estimate of effect size using the standard mean difference [overall estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC), QE the test of the residual heterogeneity], and the moderators, study identity [overall estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC)], and persistence [life stage estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC)], the number of experiments with standard deviations reported (N with SD), without standard deviations reported (N no SD), the number of experiments of each functional group (ephemeral or turf-forming algae) and the Rosenberg fail-safe number of experiments required to overturn the results (Fail safe no). Effects are significant if confidence intervals do not overlap zero. Significant effects are shown in bold print.
gcb12619-sup-0005-SupplementS5.docxWord document24KTable S5. Predicted effect (PE) and actual effect (AE) (Hedge g standard mean difference) of the interactions between (a) local anthropogenic [fishing, nutrient enrichment (NE), a heavy metal pollution (Metals) and high sediment loads (Sediment)] × other stressors (presence of competitors or grazers, removal of canopy algae, low light or salinity, high light or salinity, and increasing CO2, temperature or wave exposure and high UV) and (b) multiple local anthropogenic stressors [NO3 and PO4, fishing, heavy metal A and B, nutrient enrichment (NE), heavy metal pollution (Metals) and high sediment loads (Sediment)] on the growth of canopy-forming algae and mat-forming algae and survival of canopy-forming algae and mat-forming algae. Results are the overall estimate of effect size using the standard mean difference [overall estimate, 95% lower confidence interval (LC), higher confidence interval (HC)]. Effects are antagonistic if the actual effect size of Stressor A × B was closer to zero than the predicted effect size and synergistic when the actual effect size of Stressor A × B was further away from zero than predict effect size. Interactions were nonadditive if the confidence intervals of the actual effect size did not overlap the predicted effect size and additive if the confidence intervals of actual effect size overlapped of the predicted effect size. Antagonistic and synergistic interactions are shown in bold print.
gcb12619-sup-0006-SupplementS6.docxWord document20KTable S6. Qualitative review of nature of interactions between multiple local anthropogenic stressors [fishing, nutrient enrichment (NE), heavy metal pollution (M) and high sediment loads (Sed)] and local anthropogenic and other stressors (presence of competitors and grazers, removal of canopy algae, low light and salinity, high light and salinity, increasing CO2, temperature, and waves and high UV) on the (i) growth of canopy-forming algae (ii) growth of mat-forming algae (iii) survival of canopy-forming algae and (iv) survival of mat-forming algae. Effects are additive (Add) if the actual effect size overlaps with the predicted effect size, antagonistic (A) if the actual effect size of Stressor A × B were closer to zero than the predicted effect size, synergistic (S) if the actual effect size was further away from zero than the predicted effect size and not significant (NS) if the actual effect overlaps zero. The numbers of experiments for each interaction type are indicated in brackets. Pairs of stressors in which the majority of experiments show antagonistic interactions are shaded in light grey and synergistic interactions are shaded in dark grey.
gcb12619-sup-0007-Legend.docxWord document25K 

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