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Table S1. Aboveground biomass equations, wood or stem tissue specific gravity values, and height equations used to calculate aboveground biomass of woody trees and tree ferns (Cibotium spp.) across the nine MAT gradient sites on the Island of Hawaii, where D is diameter in centimeters at breast height (1.3 m), AGB is aboveground biomass in kilograms, ρ is wood or stem tissue specific gravity in grams per cubic centimeter, H is height in meters, π is the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, Dt is top diameter in centimeters and Db is bottom diameter in centimeters.

Figure S1. LiDAR-based estimates of aboveground live biomass carbon (where ACD is aboveground carbon density) for the 60 × 60 m area surrounding plot-centers of the seven lower elevation MAT plots along a 5.2 °C mean annual temperature gradient in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests.

Figure S2. KML 30 m resolution maps of LiDAR-estimated forest aboveground carbon density along the northeast slope of Mauna Kea volcano on the Island of Hawaii, where darker shading indicates lower carbon density. Red squares indicate the 60 × 60 m area centered on each of the seven lower elevation MAT plots.

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