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Figure S1. Relationships between the different phosphorus extraction methods and plant species richness (N = 84 for Olson-P and AEM-P, N = 36 for Oxalic acid-P). Red triangles represent grassland quadrats with pH < 5.5, blue circles 5.5 < pH < 7, green squares pH > 7. Respective Pearson correlation coefficients are from top left to top right: r = −0.56, < 0.001; r = −0.59, < 0.001; r = −0.60, < 0.001 and from bottom left to bottom right: r = 0.81, < 0.001; r = 0.78, < 0.001; r = 0.80, < 0.001.

Figure S2. Relationship between plant species richness, soil phosphorus and total nitrogen deposition across three types of European grasslands. Plane equation: ln(Plant species richness) = 3.53 − 0.004(soil P) − 0.022(N deposition). Nardus grasslands: green, N = 314; lowland hay meadows: blue, N = 105 and calcareous grasslands: red, N = 82. We found no significant Pearson correlation between soil phosphorus and nitrogen deposition (r = −0.02, = 0.63).

Table S1. List of the indicative species that were used to identify the surveyed grassland types.

Table S2. Detailed results of the Poisson regression model examining the relationships between soil phosphorus, soil pH, total nitrogen deposition, longitude, latitude, grassland type and soil nitrogen (1 m KCl extraction, NH4+ + NO3) and plant species richness (N = 293). Including soil nitrogen did not change the results of our general analyses (Table 2) and had no significant effect on plant species richness. Soil nitrogen showed significant Pearson correlation coefficients with total nitrogen deposition (r = 0.18, = 0.02) and soil pH (r = −0.35, < 0.001) but not with soil phosphorus (r = −0.1, = 0.09).

Table S3. Detailed results of the Poisson regression model examining the relationships between soil phosphorus, soil pH, total nitrogen deposition, longitude, latitude, grassland type and year of sampling and plant species richness (N = 490). Year of sampling did not change the results of our general analyses (Table 2) and had no significant effect on plant species richness. For 11 quadrats we had no data on the year of sampling.

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