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Figure S1. Habitat loss, with intact habitat defined as all natural vegetated GlobCover land classes.

Figure S2. Habitat loss, with intact habitat defined as all natural vegetated GlobCover land classes with ≥50% of the area in wilderness.

Figure S3. Habitat loss, with intact habitat defined as all natural vegetated GlobCover land classes with ≥50% of the area in protected areas.

Figure S4. Vulnerability to biome shifts across North America due to climate change, as mediated by habitat intactness, at the 48 × 48 km spatial scale with intact habitat defined as all natural vegetated GlobCover land classes with ≥50% of the area in wilderness (ltw). Bare areas, snow, and ice are not masked.

Table S1. Habitat loss, fraction (%) of terrestrial vegetated area.

Table S2. Vulnerability to biome shifts due to climate change (Gonzalez et al., 2010), fraction (%) of terrestrial area. These results exclude the GlobCover classes for bare areas, snow, and ice.

Table S3. Refugia and high vulnerability areas (% of biome area) by biome. Biomes are in the order of predominant location from the Poles to the Equator.

Table S4. Refugia and high vulnerability areas (million km2) by biome. Biomes are in the order of predominant location from the Poles to the Equator.

Table S5. Analysis of the sensitivity of the vulnerability to biome shifts due to climate change, as mediated by habitat intactness, to intactness thresholds, for North America; fraction (%) of terrestrial vegetated area.

Table S6. Vulnerability to biome shifts due to climate change, as mediated by habitat intactness, of the US National Park System; fraction (%) of area.

Table S7. Refugia and high vulnerability areas (% of biome area) of the US National Park System, by biome. Biomes are in the order of predominant location from the North Pole to the Equator.

Table S8. Refugia and high vulnerability areas (1000 km2) of the US National Park System, by biome. Biomes are in the order of predominant location from the North Pole to the Equator. Total area is less than 340 000 km2 due to coarse spatial resolution of data.

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