Editor: José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho
Discrimination capacity in species distribution models depends on the representativeness of the environmental domain
Article first published online: 25 OCT 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Global Ecology and Biogeography
Volume 22, Issue 4, pages 508–516, April 2013
How to Cite
Jiménez-Valverde, A., Acevedo, P., Barbosa, A. M., Lobo, J. M. and Real, R. (2013), Discrimination capacity in species distribution models depends on the representativeness of the environmental domain. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22: 508–516. doi: 10.1111/geb.12007
- Issue published online: 5 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 25 OCT 2012
- European Social Fund
- Delta Cafés
- Area under the ROC curve;
- contingency matrix;
- species distribution modelling;
When faced with dichotomous events, such as the presence or absence of a species, discrimination capacity (the ability to separate the instances of presence from the instances of absence) is usually the only characteristic that is assessed in the evaluation of the performance of predictive models. Although neglected, calibration or reliability (how well the estimated probability of presence represents the observed proportion of presences) is another aspect of the performance of predictive models that provides important information. In this study, we explore how changes in the distribution of the probability of presence make discrimination capacity a context-dependent characteristic of models. For the first time, we explain the implications that ignoring the context dependence of discrimination can have in the interpretation of species distribution models.
In this paper we corroborate that, under a uniform distribution of the estimated probability of presence, a well-calibrated model will not attain high discrimination power and the value of the area under the curve will be 0.83. Under non-uniform distributions of the probability of presence, simulations show that a well-calibrated model can attain a broad range of discrimination values. These results illustrate that discrimination is a context-dependent property, i.e. it gives information about the performance of a certain algorithm in a certain data population.
In species distribution modelling, the discrimination capacity of a model is only meaningful for a certain species in a given geographic area and temporal snapshot. This is because the representativeness of the environmental domain changes with the geographical and temporal context, which unavoidably entails changes in the distribution of the probability of presence. Comparative studies that intend to generalize their results only based on the discrimination capacity of models may not be broadly extrapolated. Assessment of calibration is especially recommended when the models are intended to be transferred in time or space.