Figure S1 A comparison of the diverging trends observed in recruitment between Pinus and Quercus species.

Figure S2 Geographical variation in Pinus and Quercus species recruitment for size classes R2–R4.

Figure S3 Detailed results of the SEM models for Pinus species.

Figure S4 Variation in the proportion of plots with successful Pinus recruitment along several environmental gradients.

Figure S5 Variation in the proportion of plots in which recruitment success was observed for each Pinus species and across diverse environmental gradients.

Figure S6 A comparison of the variation in the percentage of plots showing recruitment in Pinus species and Q. ilex across climatic gradients.

Figure S7 Geographical variation in the percentage of plots with recruitment success in Q. ilex in Pinus stands along temperature and rainfall gradients.

Figure S8 Elevational variation in the percentage of plots with Q. ilex recruitment success in Pinus stands.

Figure S9 Observed changes in the effects of stand basal area on GLM recruitment models between recruit size classes (R1–R4).

Table S1 Number of plots examined in each species.

Table S2 Observed correlations between climatic and topographic variables.

Table S3 Percentage of Pinus sp. plots in which recruits of other tree species were detected.

Table S4 Trends in R1 new recruitment, recruitment success and recruitment failure.

Table S5 Recruitment trends in Pinus (size classes R1–R4).

Table S6 Percentage of mixed and pure stands in Pinus species.

Table S7 Success of Pinus recruitment in managed and unmanaged stands and in mixed and monospecific stands.

Table S8 Results of the Bayesian SEM models for recruitment class R1.

Table S9 Results of the Bayesian SEM models for recruitment classes R2–R4.

Table S10 Summary of test effects for GLM models.

Supporting text S1 Trait-based ecological differences between the dominant genera Quercus and Pinus in the Iberian Peninsula.

Supporting text S2 Climatic variables (methods).

Supporting text S3 Methods of structural equation modelling.

Supporting text S4 Discussion of the recruitment trends of P. pinea, P. pinaster, Q. ilex and Q. suber.

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