Methods S1 Approximation of pseudo-satellite metrics.

Methods S2 Classification and regression tree analysis and comparisons with ‘vegetation continuous fields’ methods.

Figure S1 Example of the pseudo-data sets used for classification and regression tree analysis, showing 305 175 pixel values representing pseudo-tree cover plotted against mean annual rainfall, and the five pseudo-satellite responses, across continental Africa at c. 10 km spatial resolution.

Figure S2 Example classification and regression tree (CART) predictions for the sample data (c. 15 200 points, left column) and applied to all Africa (c. 305 000 points, right column), showing CART-nodes before residual smoothing (upper row) and post-residual smoothing (lower column).

Table S1 Comparison of accuracy assessments (root mean square error, %) provided for the MODIS VCF (Version 3) tree cover with similar statistics derived here.

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