Atmospheric warming and associated hydrological changes have implications for regional flood intensity and frequency. Climate models and hydrological models have the ability to integrate various contributing factors and assess potential changes to hydrology at global to local scales through the century. This survey of floods in a changing climate reviews flood projections based on sources of precipitation, ice and snow melt, and coastal inundation. Topographic and anthropogenic influences that exacerbate or reduce flood risks by altering surface runoff, infiltration, storage, and precipitation development are also considered. Flood mitigation and adaptation strategies for infrastructure, agriculture, public health, and local communities are explored along with uncertainties and challenges in flood research. Recent and upcoming datasets to help with future flood monitoring and prediction include satellite missions, advanced radar, and in-situ networks.