The literature on the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and development in Africa is only just emerging, and it is characterized by a wide range of diverse perspectives. While the analysis of the CSR-development nexus in Africa has been particularly insightful, there is often the lack of sufficiently grounded systematically accumulated empirical evidence. However, central to the CSR-development nexus debate in Africa is the disagreement over the reimagining of the role of business from being the cause to becoming a part of the solution to the problem of underdevelopment in the region. This paper critically examines the CSR-development nexus literature in Africa and lays bare the controversies that have so far emerged. The article engages with the drivers of CSR, its dynamics and nature within Africa. It then examines the debate of whether or not contextual factors matters for CSR and its relationship with development. Crucially, it identifies differences between proponents of CSR is good for development and those that share opposing views at the conceptual, practical, and discourse levels. The paper concludes by considering the emerging issues and its implications for future research agenda.