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Hooliganism and Demand for Football in Italy: Attendance and Counterviolence Policy Evaluation



This paper empirically investigates the relationship between stadium attendance, hooliganism and counter-violence policy measures in Italian Serie A. In particular, this paper analyses the impact of counter-hooliganism policies adopted in 2007 on the quantity of game tickets sold. The counter-hooliganism measures, grounded on an entry card, namely a ‘fidelity card’, were designed to keep out hooligans from stadiums so favouring the attendance of either occasional spectators or uncommitted fans. According to our econometric investigation the expected substitution between committed fans and uncommitted fans did not take shape. In sum, the ‘fidelity card’ did not turn to be successful if evaluated on the average attendance perspective.