Figure S1 Untitled map depicting the distribution of three religious categories and sixty-nine identified racial groups. Reproduced from the Atlas de Filipinas/Atlas of the Philippine Islands, a volume published jointly by the Observatorio de Manila and US Coast and Geodetic Survey

Source: Algué (1900a)


Figure S2 Distribution of Tremors

Source: Algué (1900a)


Figure S3 Untitled map of the Bicol region, Philippines, with views of Mayón Volcano

Source: Algué (1900a)


Figure S4 Detail from a map by Chief of the US Bureau of Statistics O.P. Austin, published in National Geographic, depicting Manila as a ‘distributing point’ for US commerce in Asia, with statistics on population and trade

Source: Austin (1902)


Figure S5 Legend from Ahern's ‘Forest Map of the Philippines’ classifying Philippine forests and land use practices by categories including ‘commercial forest’ and ‘unexplored commercial forest’ in green cross-hatching, ‘cultivated land’ in pink, and ‘unexplored land’ in white

Source: Ahern (1910)


Figure S6 Detail from Ahern's ‘Forest Map of the Philippines’ featuring Mindanao and the southern archipelago

Source: Ahern (1910)


Figure S7 Legend from the Bureau of Insular Affairs' ‘Map of the Philippines’ dividing the archipelago into Christian, Muslim, and ‘Other Non-Christian’ provinces. The simplified, color-coded human geography reflected in the map (see also Figure S8) can be compared with the more complex mapping of peoples presented in the Algué Atlas (1900a) (see FIGURE S1)

Source: Bureau of Insular Affairs (1904)


Figure S8 Detail of the Cordillera region of northern Luzon, Philippines from the Bureau of Insular Affairs' ‘Map of the Philippines’

Source: Bureau of Insular Affairs (1904)

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