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Keywords:

  • periodontal disease;
  • oral pathogen;
  • infection;
  • epidemiology

Background and Objective

Potentially significant associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontal disease have been reported in recent studies; however, there is a dearth of literature regarding the relationship of MetS with serum antibody levels to periodontal pathogens. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between MetS and serum antibody to the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in 216 Japanese individuals aged 79 years.

Materials and Methods

Serum antibody levels to P. gingivalis were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An elevated serum antibody response was defined as the upper quartile and was considered as the outcome variable. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association of MetS defined by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria with an elevated antibody status. Adjustments for gender, income, education, smoking status, dental-care utilisation patterns and brushing frequency were considered.

Results

The prevalence of MetS was 22.2% (= 48). Study participants with MetS were 2.9 times more likely to have an elevated serum antibody to P. gingivalis (adjusted odds ratio = 2.91, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–6.85) after simultaneous adjustment for other covariates.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest an independent relationship between MetS and serum antibody levels to P. gingivalis in the Japanese elderly. Additional longitudinal epidemiologic studies with larger, more diversified samples and more complete information are needed to substantiate our findings.