This study assesses the displacement of coalbed methane by CO2 migration along a fault into the coal seam in the Yaojie coalfield. Coal and gas samples were collected continuously at various distances in NO.2 coal seam from F19 fault. Vitrinite reflectance, maceral, and pore distributions and proximate analysis of fourteen coal samples were performed. Gas components, concentrations, carbon isotopes of 28 gas samples were determined. We examined the coal–gas trace characteristics of coalbed methane displaced away from the fault by CO2 injection after geological ages. From east to west, away from the F19 fault, the CO2 concentration decreased, whereas the CH4 concentration increased gradually. The δ13C values for CO2 varied between −9.94‰ and 1.12‰, suggesting a metamorphic origin. A wider range of values (from −9.94‰ to 20‰) was associated with the mixing of microbial carbon dioxide, isotopic fractionation during CO2 migration through the microporous structures of coals, and/or carbon isotope fractionation during gas–water exchange and dissolution of CO2. Away from the F19 fault, the volumes of micropores, mesopores and macropores decrease gradually. The Dubinin–Radushkevich (DR) micropore volume decreased from 0.0059 to 0.0037 cm3 g-1, and the mesopore and macropore volumes decreased from 0.066 to 0.026 cm3 g-1. The CO2 injection can mobilize aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral matter from coal matrix, resulting in the decrease in the absorption peak intensity for coal samples after supercritical CO2 treatment, which indicates that chemical reactions occur between coal and CO2, not only physical adsorption.