• 1
    The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Manual of the overall preventive approach in long term care system (revised edition). [Cited 2012 Aug 12] Available from URL: (In Japanese.)
  • 2
    The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Nourishment improvement manual (revised edition). [Cited 2012 Aug 12] Available from URL: (In Japanese.)
  • 3
    The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Summary report on the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of the People on Health and Welfare. [Cited 2012 Aug 12] Available from URL: (In Japanese.)
  • 4
    Chen YC, Chen TF, Yip PK, Hu CY, Chu YM, Chen JH. Body mass index (BMI) at an early age and the risk of dementia. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2010; 50 (Suppl 1): S48S52.
  • 5
    Deschamps V, Astier X, Ferry M, Rainfray M, Emeriau JP, Barberger-Gateau P. Nutritional status of healthy elderly persons living in Dordogne, France, and relation with mortality and cognitive or functional decline. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 305312.
  • 6
    De Laet C, Kanis JA, Oden A et al. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 2005; 16: 13301338.
  • 7
    Yatsuya H, Toyoshima H, Yamagishi K et al. Body mass index and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction in a relatively lean population: meta-analysis of 16 Japanese cohorts using individual data. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010; 3: 498505.
  • 8
    Felson DT. Epidemiology of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Epidemiol Rev 1988; 10: 128.
  • 9
    Webb R, Brammah T, Lunt M, Urwin M, Allison T, Symmons D. Opportunities for prevention of “clinically significant” knee pain: results from a population-based cross sectional survey. J Public Health (Oxf) 2004; 26: 277284.
  • 10
    Curtis LH, Hammill BG, Bethel MA, Anstrom KJ, Gottdiener JS, Schulman KA. Costs of the metabolic syndrome in elderly individuals: findings from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 25532558.
  • 11
    Fu T, Wen T, Yeh P, Chang H. Costs of metabolic syndrome-related diseases induced by obesity in Taiwan. Obes Rev 2008; 9 (Suppl 1): 6873.
  • 12
    Kuriyama S, Tsuji I, Ohkubo T et al. Medical care expenditure associated with body mass index in Japan: the Ohsaki Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 10691074.
  • 13
    Nakamura K, Okamura T, Kanda H, Hayakawa T, Okayama A, Ueshima H. Medical costs of obese Japanese: a 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan. Eur J Public Health 2007; 17: 424429.
  • 14
    WHO. 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. Guidelines Subcommittee. J Hypertens 1999; 17: 151183.
  • 15
    Spreeuwenberg MD, Bartak A, Croon MA et al. The multiple propensity score as control for bias in the comparison of more than two treatment arms: an Introduction From a Case Study in Medical Health. Med Care 2010; 48: 166174.
  • 16
    Ho SC, Woo J, Yuen YK, Sham A, Chan SG. Predictors of mobility decline: the Hong Kong old-old study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1997; 52: M356M362.
  • 17
    Pieterse S, Manandhar M, Ismail S. The association between nutritional status and handgrip strength in older Rwandan refugees. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 933939.
  • 18
    Stuck AE, Walthert JM, Nikolaus T, la CJB, Hohmannb C, Beckd JC. Risk factors for functional status decline in community-living elderly people: a systematic literature review. Soc Sci Med 1999; 48: 445469.
  • 19
    Stratton RJ, Green CJ, Elia M. Evidence base for oral nutritional support. Disease-Related Malnutrition: An Evidence-Based Approach to Treatment. Oxfordshire, UK: CABI Publishing, 2003; 168236.
  • 20
    Hirai H, Kondo K, Ojima T, Murata C. Examination of risk factors for onset of certification of long-term care insurance in community-dwelling older people: AGES project 3-year follow-up study. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2009; 56: 501512. (In Japanese.)
  • 21
    Fujiwara Y, Amano H, Kumagai S et al. Physical and psychological predictors for the onset of certification of long-term care insurance among older adults living independently in a community a 40-month follow-up study. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2006; 53: 7791. (In Japanese.)
  • 22
    Ishizaki T, Watanabe S, Suzuki T, Shibata H, Haga H. Predictors for functional decline among nondisabled older Japanese living in a community during a 3-year follow-up. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 14241429.
  • 23
    Shinkai S, Kumagai S, Fujiwara Y et al. Predictors for the onset of functional decline among initially non-disabled older people living in a community during a 6-year follow-up. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2003; 3: S31S39.
  • 24
    Shinkai S, Watanabe N, Yoshida H et al. Research on screening for frailty: development of “the Kaigo-Yobo Checklist”. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2010; 57: 345354. (In Japanese.)