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Dietary diversity decreases the risk of cognitive decline among Japanese older adults

Authors

  • Rei Otsuka,

    Corresponding author
    1. Section of National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan
    • Correspondence: Ms Rei Otsuka PhD, Section of NILS-LSA, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 7-430 Morioka-cho, Obu, Aichi 474-8511, Japan. Email: otsuka@ncgg.go.jp

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  • Yukiko Nishita,

    1. Section of National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan
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  • Chikako Tange,

    1. Section of National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan
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  • Makiko Tomida,

    1. Section of National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan
    2. Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Yuki Kato,

    1. Section of National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan
    2. Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Aichi Shukutoku University, Aichi, Japan
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  • Mariko Nakamoto,

    1. Section of National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan
    2. Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan
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  • Tomoko Imai,

    1. Section of National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan
    2. Faculty of Human Life and Science, Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts, Kyoto, Japan
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  • Fujiko Ando,

    1. Section of National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan
    2. Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Aichi Shukutoku University, Aichi, Japan
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  • Hiroshi Shimokata

    1. Section of National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan
    2. Graduate School of Nutritional Sciences, Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences, Aichi, Japan
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  • [Corrections added on 28 July 2016 after first online publication: affiliation 1 has been corrected; the second affiliation of Fujiko Ando has been corrected to ‘Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Aichi Shukutoku University’; the second affiliations of Makiko Tomida and Hiroshi Shimokata have been interchanged.]

Abstract

Aim

To clarify the effectiveness of dietary diversity, calculated by dietary records, on cognitive decline.

Methods

Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences – Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants comprised 298 men and 272 women aged 60–81 years at baseline (second wave) who participated in the follow-up study (third to seventh wave) at least once. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination in all study waves. Dietary diversity was determined using the Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity based on a 3-day dietary record in the second wave. Cumulative data among participants with a Mini-Mental State Examination score >27 in the second wave were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≤27 in each study wave according to a 1 standard deviation (increase), or quartiles of the Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity at baseline, were adjusted for sex, age, follow-up time, baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score, education, body mass index, annual household income, current smoking status, energy intake and disease history.

Results

Multivariate adjusted odds ratio for a decline in Mini-Mental State Examination score was 0.79 (95% CI 0.70–0.89; P < 0.001) with a 1 SD increase in dietary diversity score, or 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (95% CI 0.70–1.43), 0.68 (95% CI 0.46–0.99) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.38–0.83) according to the lowest through highest quartiles of dietary diversity score, respectively (trend P = 0.001).

Conclusions

Daily intake of various kinds of food might be a protective factor against cognitive decline in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 937–944.

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