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Activated oncogenes induce premature cellular senescence, a permanent state of proliferative arrest in primary rodent and human fibroblasts. Recent studies suggest that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in oncogenic Ras-induced premature senescence. However, the signaling mechanism controlling this oxidant-mediated irreversible growth arrest is not fully understood. Here, we show that through the Ras/MEK pathway, Ras oncogene up-regulated the expression of superoxide-generating oxidases, Nox1 in rat REF52 cells and Nox4 in primary human lung TIG-3 cells, leading to an increase in intracellular level of ROS. Ablation of Nox1 and Nox4 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) blocked the RasV12 senescent phenotype including β-galactosidase activity, growth arrest and accumulation of tumor suppressors such as p53 and p16Ink4a. This suggests that Nox-generated ROS transduce senescence signals by activating the p53 and p16Ink4a pathway. Furthermore, Nox1 and Nox4 siRNAs inhibited both Ras-induced DNA damage response and p38MAPK activation, whereas overexpression of Nox1 and Nox4 alone was able to induce senescence. The involvement of Nox1 in Ras-induced senescence was also confirmed with embryonic fibroblasts derived from Nox1 knockout mice. Together, these findings suggest that Nox1- and Nox4-generated ROS play an important role in Ras-induced premature senescence, which may involve DNA damage response and p38MAPK signaling pathways.