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Keywords:

  • endoscopy;
  • hereditary bleeding disorders;
  • tranexamic acid

Summary

The risk of bleeding in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders (HBD) undergoing gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures is unknown but guidelines generally recommend correction of factor deficiency. Investigate the safety of oral tranexamic acid (TA) without prophylactic factor replacement to prevent bleeding complications in patients with HBD undergoing elective GI endoscopic procedures. A prospective single-arm pilot study testing the feasibility of using TA, without prophylactic factor replacement or desmopressin preprocedure, for prevention of bleeding complications following elective standard risk (<1% risk of bleeding) endoscopic procedures in patients with HBD. Baseline factor levels, haemoglobin and iron studies (IS) were measured preprocedure. Primary outcome of bleeding (NCI CTCAE v3.0 Bleeding Scale) was undertaken by patient review and repeat Hb, IS on day 21. Twenty-eight patients underwent 32 GI endoscopic procedures from September 2010 until June 2012. The median age was 53 years (range 24–75 years) and disease types included mild haemophilia A/B (n = 12), severe haemophilia A/B (n = 9), von Willebrand disease (n = 5), FXI deficiency (n = 1) and FVII deficiency (n = 1). Procedures performed included 11 gastroscopies, 12 colonoscopies, 8 gastroscopies and colonoscopies and 1 flexible sigmoidoscopy. Fourteen standard risk procedures and two high risk procedures were performed. Two patients experienced Grade 1 bleeding and one patient experienced Grade 2 bleeding. This study suggests that TA without prophylactic factor replacement may be a safe approach for mild and moderate HBD patients undergoing standard risk endoscopic procedures, particularly where no biopsy is performed. These findings should be confirmed in a larger study.