• factor XIII deficiency;
  • menorrhagia;
  • miscarriage;
  • ovulation bleeding;
  • postpartum haemorrhage;
  • pregnancy


Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare congenital bleeding disorder. There is a paucity of data in the literature about obstetrics and gynaecological problems in women affected by FXIII deficiency. The aim of this study was to examine gynaecological problems and obstetric complications and outcome in women with congenital FXIII deficiency. An electronic search was performed to identify the published literature on PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Journals @OVID and CINAHL Plus databases using the following keywords: ‘congenital factor XIII deficiency’ AND ‘women OR Pregnancy’. A total of 39 relevant articles were found and included in this systematic review; 27 case reports and 12 case series dating from 1964 to 2012. A total of 121 women were identified. Menorrhagia (26%) was the second most common bleeding reported after umbilical bleeding. Ovulation bleeding reported in 8% of women. Among 63 women, 192 pregnancies were reported; of these, 127 (66%) resulted in a miscarriage and 65 (34%) reached viability stage. In 136 pregnancies without prophylactic therapy, 124 (91%) resulted in a miscarriage and 12(9%) progressed to viability stage. Antepartum haemorrhage occurred in 5/65 (8%) pregnancies reaching viability stage while postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) seen in 16 (25%) cases. Women with congenital FXIII deficiency suffer significant bleeding complications. Menorrhagia and ovulation bleeding are common gynaecological problems and more prevalent than reported. Pregnancies in women with FXIII deficiency have a significant risk of miscarriage, placental abruption and PPH if not on prophylaxis treatment.