Haemophiliacs who have had to keep a physically inactive lifestyle due to bleeding during childhood are likely to have little motivation for exercise. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effectiveness of the self-monitoring of home exercise for haemophiliacs. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with intervention over 8 weeks at four hospitals in Japan. Subjects included 32 male outpatients aged 26–64 years without an inhibitor who were randomly allocated to a self-monitoring group and a control group. Individual exercise guidance with physical activity for improvement of their knee functions was given to both groups. The self-monitoring materials included an activity monitor and a feedback system so that the self-monitoring group could send feedback via the Internet and cellular phone. The self-monitoring was performed by checking exercise adherence and physical activity levels, bleeding history and injection of a coagulation factor. Both groups showed significant improvements in exercise adherence (P < 0.001) and physical function such as the strength of knee extension (P < 0.001), range of knee extension (P < 0.001), range of ankle dorsiflexion (P < 0.01), a modified Functional Reach (P < 0.05) and 10 metre gait time (P < 0.01). In particular, improvements in exercise adherence (P < 0.05), self-efficacy (P < 0.05), and strength of knee extension (P < 0.05) were significant in the self-monitoring group compared with those in the control group. No increase in bleeding frequency and pain scale was noted. The self-monitoring of home exercise for haemophilic patients is useful for the improvement of exercise adherence, self-efficacy and knee extension strength.